Daily Prelims Notes 14 July 2020
- July 14, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Guruka Langar
- 26th constitutional amendment
- Prakash Singh case 2006
- Bharatmala Pariyojna
- Digital India
- Global Distance Learning Fund
- Import Substitution
Subject: Arts and culture
In Delhi, since the start of the COVID-19 lockdown, one lakh meals have been served to poor and migrant laborers through community kitchen of Sikhs.
- It was founded by Guru Nanak in the 15th century.
- The practice of a free community kitchen serving food to everyone without any discrimination has become well-known all over the globe.
- The word ‘langar’ has its origin in Persian, and means a public eating place where people, especially the needy, are given food.
- This practice derives its meaning from the touchstone of Nanak’s three pillars of philosophy – “kiratkaro” (earn with labour), “naamjapo” (contemplate the various names of God), and “vandchako” (share with others).
- The sharing of meals by people sitting together on the floor irrespective of their social background was a one-of-its-kind taboo-breaking practice.
- The second Sikh guru Angad Dev and his wife Mata Khivi played a crucial role in strengthening the tradition of langar.
- The third Sikh Guru, Amar Das, too devoutly followed ‘sangataurpangat’ and anyone who used to come to meet him, was first served langar.
- It is said that even when Emperor Akbar came to meet him, Guru suggested he should first have langar sitting with everyone on the floor, which Akbar accepted.
2. 26th constitutional amendment
The Supreme Court has ruled that the Travancore royal family has rights to maintain and manage the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple in Kerala.
- A two-judge bench held that the royal family’s Shebaitship — the right to maintain and manage the temple and the deitydoes not come to an end with the death of the ruler, who signed the instrument of accession with the Indian government in 1949 by which the erstwhile princely state of Travancore merged with the Indian union.
- And also Shebait rights of the royal family will continue and abolition of the rights and privileges of the royal family by the 26th amendment of the Constitution will not impact it.
26th amendment of 1971
- It abolished the privy purses and privileges of the former rulers of princely states in India in order to establish egalitarian society.
- In return for surrendering their powers, Articles 291 and 362 guaranteed royal families a tax-free privy purse which was approximately one-fourth of what they had earlier earned.
- Most Congressmen were opposed to payment of privy purses. But Sardar Patel made a stirring speech in the Constituent Assembly on October 12, 1949. He asked members to realise that this was a small price to pay for the integration of India.
Shree Padmanabhaswamy Temple
- Dedicated to Lord Padmanabhaya, an avatar of Lord Vishnu, the famous Shree Padmanabhaswamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram is one of the most popular shrines in India.
- It has been described in several Hindu scriptures like the Brahma Purana, MatsyaPurana, VarahaPurana, SkandaPurana, Padma Purana, Vayu Purana and BhagavataPurana.
- The Shree Padmanabhaswamy Temple dates back to 8th century CE, say historians.
- The temple, built in the Chera style of architecture, is unique to Kerala and the neighbouring states, as the construction was done keeping the local weather and wind direction in mind.
- Temples made in the Chera style are usually square, rectangular, octagonal or star-shaped.
- Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple is one of 108 DivyaDesams (holy abodes of Vishnu) – principal centres of worship of the deity in Vaishnavism.
- The main deity in the Shree Padmanabhaswamy Temple is of Lord Vishnu in the ‘AnanthaShayana’ posture (reclined posture of eternal yoga) on AdiShesha or king of all serpents.
Rising allegations against police system in India brings to light judgments of Prakash singh case.
- In 1996, a petition was filed before the Supreme which stated that the police abuse and misuse their powers. It alleged non-enforcement and discriminatory application of laws in favour of persons with clout, and also raised instances of unauthorised detentions, torture, harassment, etc. against ordinary citizens. The petition asked the court to issue directions for implementation of recommendations of expert committees.
- Directions: In September 2006, the court issued various directions to the centre and states including:
- Constitute a State Security Commission in every state that will lay down policy for police functioning, evaluate police performance, and ensure that state governments do not exercise unwarranted influence on the police.
- Constitute a Police Establishment Board in every state that will decide postings, transfers and promotions for officers below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police, and make recommendations to the state government for officers of higher ranks.
- Constitute Police Complaints Authorities at the state and district levels to inquire into allegations of serious misconduct and abuse of power by police personnel.
- Provide a minimum tenure of at least two years for the DGP and other key police officers (e.g., officers in charge of a police station and district) within the state forces, and the Chiefs of the central forces to protect them against arbitrary transfers and postings.
- Ensure that the DGP of state police is appointed from amongst three senior-most officers who have been empanelled for the promotion by the Union Public Service Commission on the basis of length of service, good record and experience.
- Separate the investigating police from the law and order police to ensure speedier investigation, better expertise and improved rapport with the people.
- Constitute a National Security Commission to shortlist the candidates for appointment as Chiefs of the central armed police forces.
The Expert Appraisal Committee of the Environment Ministry has recommended the grant of Environmental Clearance for the development of an economic corridor between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka under Bharatmala Pariyojna
- It is a new umbrella program for the highways sector that focuses on optimizing efficiency of freight and passenger movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through effective interventions like development of Economic Corridors, Inter Corridors and Feeder Routes, National Corridor Efficiency Improvement, Border and International connectivity roads, Coastal and Port connectivity roads and Green-field expressways.
- Improvement in efficiency of existing corridors through development of Multimodal Logistics Parks and elimination of choke point
- Enhance focus on improving connectivity in North East and leveraging synergies with Inland Waterways
- Emphasis on use of technology & scientific planning for Project Preparation and Asset Monitoring
- Delegation of powers to expedite project delivery – Phase I to complete by 2022
- Improving connectivity in the North East
Subject: Government schemes
Google announces $10billion investment in ‘digital India’
- Digital India is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.
- The Digital India programme is centred on three key vision areas:
- Digital Infrastructure as a Core Utility to Every Citizen: Availability of high speed internet as a core utility for delivery of services to citizens, Cradle to grave digital identity that is unique, lifelong, online and authenticable to every citizen, Mobile phone & bank account enabling citizen participation in digital & financial space, Easy access to a Common Service Centre, Shareable private space on a public cloud, Safe and secure cyber-space
- Governance & Services on Demand: Seamlessly integrated services across departments or jurisdictions, Availability of services in real time from online & mobile platforms, All citizen entitlements to be portable and available on the cloud, Digitally transformed services for improving ease of doing business, Making financial transactions electronic & cashless and Leveraging Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) for decision support systems & development
- Digital Empowerment of Citizens: Universal digital literacy, Universally accessible digital resources, Availability of digital resources / services in Indian languages, Collaborative digital platforms for participative governance and Citizens not required to physically submit Govt. documents / certificates.
6. Global Distance Learning Fund
After Facebook, Google partners with CBSE to promote online education in India. It will provide a $1 million grant to the Kaivalya Education Foundation through the Global Distance Learning Fund
- It is part of Google.org, aimed at helping teachers deliver virtual education to students in the country.
- The initiative empowers 700,000 teachers over the next year to deliver virtual education and learning from home.
- It will partner public broadcasting agency, Prasar Bharti, for an edutainment series meant for small and medium-sized businesses in the country.
Indian government has identified 12 priority sectors with potential for import substitution and boosting exports.
Food processing, organic farming, iron & steel, aluminium& copper, agrochemicals, electronics, industrial machinery, furniture, leather & footwear, auto parts, textiles and marine products.
- The policy of encouraging domestic production by raising barriers against the import of goods from foreign economies.
- It is usually recommended by some economists as a way to encourage self-sufficiency, and also to aid the development of local industries.
- It was most popular in Latin America in the 20th century, and India too adopted it prior to the liberalisation of its economy in 1991.
- Critics have argued that protectionist measures like import substitution make consumers poorer in the long run, by preventing them from enjoying the benefits of free trade.
- Also, given the restrictions imposed on foreign trade, it can lead to bureaucratic corruption.