Daily Prelims Notes 20 June 2020
- June 20, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
Mr.Urjit Patel was appointed as chairman of India’s premier economic think tank National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP),
- The National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) is a centre for research in public economics and policies.
- Founded in 1976, the institute undertakes research, policy advocacy and capacity building in areas related to public economics.
- One of the major mandates of the institute is to assist the Central, State and Local governments in formulating and reforming public policies by providing an analytical base.
- The institute was set up as an autonomous society, at the joint initiative of the Ministry of Finance, Planning Commission, several State governments and distinguished academicians.
- It is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
- Although the institute receives an annual grant from the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, and various State governments, it maintains an independent non-government character in its pursuit of research and policy.
- The governing body of NIPFP comprises of Revenue Secretary, Economic Affairs Secretary and the Chief Economic Advisor from the Union Finance Ministry, besides representatives from NitiAayog, RBI and three state governments
The RBI and the government differed on a number of policy-related matters including surplus transfer to the exchequer while Mr.Urjit Patel was RBI governor
Concept: According to Section 7(1) of the RBI Act, 1934, the Central Government may from time to time give such directions to the Bank as it may, after consultation with the Governor of the Bank, consider necessary in the public interest.
3. Gig Economy
- A Deloitte report from April “Future of work accelerated” notes that Indian organisations are considering to expand the share of gig workers, as dependence on full-time workers reduces.
- Current pandemic crisis also induced discussion on the levels of social protection available to gig workers including wage protection, health benefits and safety assurance
- In a gig economy, temporary, flexible jobs are commonplace and companies tend toward hiring independent contractors and freelancersinstead of full-time employees.
- A gig economy undermines the traditional economy of full-time workers who rarely change positions and instead focus on a lifetime career.
- The drivers of Uber, the delivery boys of Zomato, the plumbers and electricians of Urban Clap make up the gig world
- The gig economy can benefit workers, businesses, and consumers by making work more adaptable to the needs of the moment and demand for flexible lifestyles.
- The result of a gig economy is cheaper, more efficient services.
- The gig economy is largely unregulated, therefore workers have little job security and few benefits.
- Unless a person is extremely talented, his bargaining power will necessarily be limited.
- While companies routinely invest in training employees, a gig-economy workers will have to upgrade his skills on his own at his own cost.
- There are already many more potential online independent workers than jobs, and this demand-supply mismatch will only get worse over time, depressing wages.
Subject: Science and tech
Researchers have reported in The Lancet that Covid-19 patients with very high levels of cortisol in their blood are more likely to deteriorate quickly and die.
- Cortisol is a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glandsand then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body.
- Almost every cell contains receptors for cortisol and so cortisol can have lots of different actions depending on which sort of cells it is acting upon.
- These effects include controlling the body’s blood sugar levels and thus regulating metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory, influencing memory formation, controlling salt and water balance, influencing blood pressure and helping development of the foetus. In many species cortisol is also responsible for triggering the processes involved in giving birth.
- The drug dexamethasone, which recent research has shown to reduce death rates in COVID patients, acts by imitating cortisol and reducing the production of cortisol. I
- In healthy people, cortisol levels are 100-200 nm/L when resting, and nearly zero when we sleep.
Subject: Welfare schemes/Policies
COVID pandemic has increased mental illness through uncertainties it caused to people’s lives and has thrown light on India’s mental healthcare.
- Mental health problems were already a major contributor to the burden of illness in India before the pandemic, with a third of all female and a quarter of all male suicide deaths in the world occurring in this country
- Poor awareness about symptoms of mental illness, myths & stigma related to it, lack of knowledge on the treatment availability & potential benefits of seeking treatment are important causes for the high treatment gap
National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) in 1982
- To ensure the availability and accessibility of minimum mental healthcare for all in the foreseeable future, particularly to the most vulnerable and underprivileged sections of the population;
- To encourage the application of mental health knowledge in general healthcare and in social development; and
- To promote community participation in the mental health service development and to stimulate efforts towards self-help in the community.
Mental Healthcare Act, 2017:
The Act seeks to ensure rights of the person with mental illness to receive care and to live a life with dignity. The key features of the Act are:
- Rights of Persons with Mental Illness: Right to Access to Healthcare, Right to live with dignity, Right to Confidentialit
- The Act empowers person with mental illness to make an advance directive that states how he/she wants to be treated for the illness and who his/her nominated representative shall be.
- The Act mandates the government to set up Central Mental Health Authority at national-level and State Mental Health Authority in every State.
- A mentally ill person shall not be subjected to electro-convulsive therapy without the use of muscle relaxants and anaesthesia. Further, electroconvulsive therapy cannot be used on minors
- Decriminalization of Suicide
The BJP-led coalition government in Manipur came apart with three BJP MLAs defected to the Congress, thus reducing its number of legislators from 21 to 18 in the 60-member assembly.
- The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by 52nd amendment. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
- If a member of a house belonging to a political party voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party, or Votes, or does not vote in the legislature, contrary to the directions of his political party. However, if the member has taken prior permission, or is condoned by the party within 15 days from such voting or abstention, the member shall not be disqualified.
- If an independent candidate joins a political party after the election.
- If a nominated member joins a party six months after he becomes a member of the legislature.
91st amendment act of 2003
- The total number of ministers including the Prime minister in the central council of ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Loksabha/State legislative assembly. (Article 75,164). However in states number of ministers shall not be less than 12.
- A member disqualified under defection is also disqualified for being a minister in house.
- The member disqualified on the grounds of defection shall also be disqualified for any remunerative political post, office wholly or partially under the government .
- The provision regarding one third was also deleted by this amendment.
- Exceptions under the law: Legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. The law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favour of the merger. In such a scenario, neither the members who decide to merge, nor the ones who stay with the original party will face disqualification.
- The law initially stated that the decision of the Presiding Officer is not subject to judicial review. This condition was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1992, thereby allowing appeals against the Presiding Officer’s decision in the High Court and Supreme Court.