Daily Prelims Notes 22 August 2020
- August 22, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Harit path app
- Kala- Azar and Nanomedicine
- Section 153 of the Representation of the People Act
- Classical dance
- Clean Plates Campaign
- S Mulgaonkar v Unknown (1978) case
- P Notes
Subject: Government initiative
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), a public sector undertaking under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has developed a mobile App called ‘Harit Path’
- It is mobile app to monitor the plantations through geo-tagging and web-basedGIS enabled monitoring tools.
- The app has been developed to monitor location, growth, species details, maintenance activities, targets and achievements of each of its field units for each and every plant under all plantation projects.
- To commemorate 25 years of its service to the nation, the National Highways Authority of India has also recently undertaken ‘Harit Bharat Sankalp’, a nation-wide plantation drive which is in line with NHAI’s commitment to promote environment protection and sustainability.
- Under this initiative, the NHAI planted over 25 lakh plants in 25 days along the stretches of the national highways between July 21 and August 15, 2020.
2. Kala- Azar and Nanomedicine
Subject: Science and tech
Scientists from the Institute of Nano Science & Technology (INST), Mohali, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science & Technology have developed an oral nanomedicine for combating visceral leishmaniasis.
- Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by any species of Leishmania parasite.
- It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female sandfly. I
- In most cases, a person who is infected by the parasite has neither symptoms nor signs of infection and is not considered to have leishmaniasis.
- Although there are some 20 different parasites that cause the disease, there are only three different types of leishmaniasis.
- The most common type (CL) causes skin lesions, mainly nodules or painless ulcers.
- The second type (VL, also known as kala-azar) is a life-threatening disease that causes anaemia (deficiency in the number or quality of red blood cells), fever, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen and significant weight loss.
- The third type (MCL, or mucosal leishmaniasis alone) destroys the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and throat cavities and surrounding tissues.
- It is one of the most neglected tropical diseases and around 95 % of cases are reported from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Nepal, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan.
- Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology(the engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body.
- It uses the properties developed by a material at its nanometric scale 10-9 m which often differ in terms of physics, chemistry or biology from the same material at a bigger scale.
- Moreover, the nanometric size is also the scale of many biological mechanisms in the human body allowing nanoparticles and nanomaterials to potentially cross natural barriers to access new sites of delivery and to interact with DNA or small proteins at different levels, in blood or within organs, tissues or cells.
- At the nano-scale, the surface-to-volume ratio is such that the surface properties are becoming an intrinsic parameter of the potential actions of a particle or material.
- Coating of the particles and functionalization of their surfaces are in this way extremely common to increase the biocompatibility of the particle and its circulation time in the blood, as well as to ensure a highly selective binding to the desired target.
- Nanomedicine has the potential to enable early detection and prevention and to drastically improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of many diseases including cancer.
President Donald Trump said US will pursue the “snapback” option in nuclear deal, after the U.S. lost a bid at the UN Security Council to extend the arms embargo on Iran.
- In July 2015, Iran and six countries reached a historic agreement called the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), popularly known as the Iran nuclear deal.
- The six major powers involved in these negotiations with Iran were known as the P5+1, which stands for the United Nations Security Council’s five permanent members (the US, France, the UK, China, and Russia) and Germany.
- The deal came together after two years of intense discussions and aimed to restrict Iran’s ability to develop nuclear weapons in exchange for lifting economic sanctions against Tehran.
- As part of the deal, Iran agreed to reduce its number of centrifuges – tube-shaped machines that help enrich uranium – by two-thirds. It also agreed to reduce its stockpile of enriched uranium by 98% and limit uranium enrichment to 3.67%.
- Iran agreed to give access to inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to its nuclear facilities, among other facilities. The IAEA has repeatedly found Iran to be complying with the terms of the pact
4. Section 153 of the Representation of the People Act
Political parties are increasingly voicing concerns over holding elections in Bihar amid a pandemic.
- Election Commission (EC) is mandated under law to hold elections at any time within six months before the five-year term of the Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly expires.
- The polls are timed in a way that the new Assembly or Lok Sabha is in place on the day of the dissolution of the outgoing House.
- In the case of early dissolution, EC has to ensure, as far as possible, a new Lok Sabha or Assembly is in place within six months of the dissolution.
- An election once called usually proceeds as per schedule. However, in some exceptional cases, the process can be postponed or even scrapped after its announcement under extraordinary circumstances.
- Under Section 153 of the Representation of the People Act, the poll panel can “extend the time” for completing an election, but such extension should not go beyond the date of the normal dissolution of the Lok Sabha or the Assembly.
- Powers under Section 153 can be exercised only after an election schedule has been notified.
- If the EC wants to postpone Bihar elections, it will have to be done through its extraordinary powers under Article 324.
Subject: Arts and culture
- The earliest treatise on dance available to us is Bharat Muni’s Natyashastra, the source book of the art of drama, dance and music.
- It is generally accepted that the date of the work is between the 2nd century B.C.E- 2nd century C.E.The Natyashastra is also known as the fifth veda.
- According to the author, he has evolved thisveda by taking words from the Rigveda, music from the Samaveda, gestures from the Yajurveda and emotions from the Atharvaveda. There is also a legend that Brahma himself wrote the Natyaveda, which has over 36,000 verses.
- Nurtured for centuries, dance in India has evolved in different parts of the country its own distinct style taking on the culture of that particular region, each acquiring its own flavour.
- Consequently a number of major styles of ‘art’ dance are known to us today, like Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Kathak, Manipuri, Odissi and Sattriya.
- Then, there are regional variations, the dances of rural and tribal areas, which range from simple, joyous celebrations of the seasons, harvest or birth of a child to dances for the propitiation of demons or for invoking spirits.
1) Bharatnatyam, Tamil Nadu
- Bharatanatyam, also known as the mother of all other classical dance styles, is considered as the oldest dance forms in the country India that originated from the temple dancers in Tamil Nadu.
- The dance is a pure amalgam of expressions, music, beat and rhythm.
2) Kathak, Uttar Pradesh
- Another popular and recognised form of classical Indian dance is Kathak that originated from Uttar Pradesh in north India.
- This one is derived from the word katha meaning story, and during the whole dance, the dancers narrate stories through their eyes and expressions.
3) Kathakali, Kerala
- This one is probably one of the most attractive, dramatic and elaborate forms of classical Indian dance.
- Kathakali originated in the south Indian state of Kerala, also known as God’s Own Country during the 17th century.
- The artist performing the dance needs to have detailed make-up, wear heavy costumes and, most importantly, work on their gestures.
4) Kuchipudi, Andhra Pradesh
- Kuchipudi is considered one of the toughest forms of Indian classical dance that originated in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
- The form is considered the toughest because it requires a whole lot of rituals, from lighting the incense sticks to sprinkling holy water and praying to the lord.
5) Manipuri, Manipur
- Manipuri dance form originated in the northeastern state of Manipur and is a pure spiritual experience.
- This is a theme based classical dance form that depicts Raaslila or the romantic act of the Hindu gods Radha and Krishna. Costumes and makeup plays an important role here.
6) Odissi, Odisha
- Odissi dance form emerged from the east Indian state of Odisha and is mainly derived from the ancient Hindu temples in Odisha.
- The whole dance is based on gestures and movements or mudras. The dance is performed to express the mythical stories of the Hindu gods, such as Lord Shiva and Surya. It is also considered as the oldest surviving dance forms of India.
7) Sattriya Dance, Assam
The Sattriya Dance of Assam is living tradition of state and one of the eight major classical Indian dance traditions. Sattriya classical dance form is well appreciated and practiced outside the state as well as outside of Indian mainland.
Mohiniyattam is another classical dance style from Kerala state and one of the eight principal Indian classical dance. The Mohiniyattam is a popular dance form with a drama in dance,performed with subtle gestures and footwork.
China’s President Xi Jinping called on his country’s citizens to drastically cut down on food waste in a new initiative called the ‘Clean Plates Campaign’.
The push came as the Covid-19 pandemic, devastating floods and worsening relations with major international partners have raised fears about food shortage in the world’s most populous country.
7. S Mulgaonkar v Unknown (1978) case
Counsel has invoked the ‘Mulgaonkar principles’ in the criticism against the Supreme Court’s ruling that held advocate Prashant Bhushan guilty of contempt of court.
- S Mulgaonkar v Unknown (1978) is a case that led to a landmark ruling on the subject of contempt.
- By a 2:1 majority, the court held Mulgaonkar, then editor of The Indian Express, not guilty of contempt although the same Bench had initiated the proceedings.
- Justices P Kailasam and Krishna Iyer formed the majority going against then Chief Justice of India M H Beg.
- Justice Iyer’scounsel of caution in exercising the contempt jurisdiction came to be called the Mulgaonkar principles.
- Justice Iyer said the first rule in the branch of power is a wise economy of use by the Court of this branch of its jurisdiction.
- The Court will act with seriousness and severity where justice is jeopardized by a gross and/or unfounded attack on the judges, where the attack is calculated to obstruct or destroy the judicial process.
- The court is willing to ignore, by a majestic liberalism, trifling and venial offenses-the dogs may bark, the caravan will pass. The court will not be prompted to act as a result of an easy irritability.
- He argued in favour of harmonizing the constitutional values of free criticism, the fourth estate included, and the need for a fearless curial process and its presiding functionary
The Nagaland government has moved the Supreme Court seeking removal of the Nagaland Lokayukta for acts of impropriety.
- The Lokayukta is an anti-corruption authority constituted at the state level.
- It investigates allegations of corruption and mal-administration against public servants and is tasked with speedy redressal of public grievances.
- The origin of the Lokayukta can be traced to the Ombudsmen in Scandinavian countries.
- The Administrative Reforms Commission, (1966-70), had recommended the creation of the Lokpal at the Centre and Lokayukta in the states.
- The Lokayukta is created as a statutory authority under Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013to enable it to discharge its functions independently and impartially.
- The lokayukta and upalokayukta are appointed by the governor of the state. While appointing, the governor in most of the states consults (a) the chief justice of the state high court, and (b) the leader of Opposition in the state legislative assembly.
- Judicial qualifications are prescribed for the lokayukta in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, Karnataka and Assam. But no specific qualifications are prescribed in the states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
- In most of the states, the term of office fixed for lokayukta is of 5 years duration or 65 years of age, whichever is earlier. He is not eligible for reappointment for a second term.
- The recommendations made by the lokayukta are only advisory and not binding on the state government.
9. P notes
Investments through participatory notes (P-notes) in the domestic capital market soared to Rs 63,288 crore till July-end, making it the fourth consecutive monthly rise
- P-notes are issued by registered foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly.
- They, however, need to go through a due diligence process.