Daily Prelims Notes 23 November 2020
- November 23, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- AAROGYA SANJEEVANI
- INDIA’S MIGRATORY BIRD SPECIES
- DEEP SEA MISSION
- GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CRIMINAL FINANCE
- LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISORDER
- PROPOSAL TO DECARBONISE SHIPPING
- ANTI DOPING ACT
- CHANDIGARH AS CAPITAL
- BRU SETTLEMENT CRISIS
Context: The standardized health insurance policy, Arogya Sanjeevani was designed by the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority with many interesting features. Every general insurance or health insurance company is mandated to offer it from April 1, 2020.
- Under the guidelines, IRDAI asked the general and health insurers to offer product that can take care of basic health needs of customers with maximum sum insured of Rs 5 lakh and a minimum of Rs 1 lakh.
- The product will be named as Arogya Sanjeevani Policy, succeeded by the name of the insurance company. No other name is allowed in any of the documents.
- The standard product should have the basic mandatory covers, no add-ons or optional covers are allowed to be offered along with the standard product and the insurer may determine the price keeping in view the covers proposed to be offered subject to complying with guidelines.
- The standard product shall be offered on indemnity basis only and the policy tenure shall be for a period of one year.
2. INDIA’S MIGRATORY BIRD SPECIES
Context: After a two-year lull in the wake of Cyclone Gaja that ravaged the Cauvery delta districts, birds have, in good numbers, visited the Vaduvur, Udhayamarthandam and Point Calimere sanctuaries.
- India’s migratory species- The Asian elephant, great Indian bustard, Bengal florican, oceanic white-tip shark, urial and smooth hammerhead shark are among the major migratory species.
- At the global level, more than 650 species are listed under the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) appendices and India, with over 450 species, plays a very important role in their conservation.
- Largest among the migratory species- The bird family Muscicapidae has the highest number of migratory species and the next highest group of migratory birds is raptors or birds of prey, such as eagles, owls, vultures and kites which are from the family Accipitridae.
- The largest group of mammals is definitely bats belonging to the family Vespertilionidae and Dolphins are the second-highest group of mammals with nine migratory species of dolphins.
- Fishes make up another important group of migratory species. The total number of migratory fish species from India under CMS now stands at 24.
Flyways used by the migratory birds:
- There are three flyways (flight paths used by birds): the Central Asian flyway, East Asian flyway and East Asian–Australasian Flyway.
Decline in bird’s population:
- Recently, according to the State of India’s Birds 2020 (SoIB) report, there are growing threats to the population of these species. They face a growing threat from loss of habitat due to human activity, the widespread presence of toxins including pesticides, hunting and trapping for the pet trade.
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI):
- It is a subordinate organization of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India and was established in 1916 as a national centre for faunistic survey and exploration of the resources.
- The headquarters of ZSI is based at Kolkata.
- Objective- Its major objectives are to study of fauna of states, conducting survey on the species, research and documentation on various aspects of animal taxonomy in Indian subcontinent.
- ZSI publishes Red Data Book on Indian Animals and it was first published in 1983 which is similar to Red Data Book published by IUCN.
Context: India will soon launch an ambitious ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ that envisages exploration of minerals, energy and marine diversity of the underwater world, a vast part of which still remains unexplored.
- The focus of the mission will be on deep-sea mining, ocean climate change advisory services, underwater vehicles and underwater robotics related technologies.
- Two key projects planned in the ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ report include a desalination plant powered by tidal energy and a submersible vehicle that can explore depths of at least 6,000 metres.
Significance of the Mission:
- The ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ plan will enable India to develop capabilities to exploit resources in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB).
- India has been allotted 75,000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploration of poly-metallic nodules. CIOB reserves contain deposits of metals like iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt.
- It is envisaged that 10% of recovery of that large reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years. It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.
- Polymetallic nodules (also known as manganese nodules) are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor of world oceans in deep sea.
- Composition: Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium, of which nickel, cobalt and copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.
4. GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CRIMINAL FINANCE
Subject: International events
Context: Over 2,000 representatives from 132 countries attended the virtual 4th Global Conference on Criminal Finances and Cryptocurrencies organised by the Interpol, Europol and the Basel Institute on Governance.
- The conference is an initiative of the Working Group on Cryptocurrencies and Money Laundering established in 2016 by the three organisations.
- It is launched with an objective of strengthening knowledge, expertise and best practices for investigations into financial crimes and intelligence on virtual assets and cryptocurrencies.
- The conference underlined the need to expand capabilities on ways to probe virtual assets and regulate virtual asset service providers to prevent money laundering.
- The conference’s agenda included trends and investigations on cryptocurrency related offences, exploring criminal flows and operations in the dark markets, ransomware and sextortion case studies, money laundering involving virtual assets, and the transfer of drug proceeds using cryptocurrencies.
Subject: Science & tech
Context: Supreme Court recently upheld a verdict given by the Madras High Court urging the State government to allocate funds for the treatment of children with LSD.
- The lysosomes are primary digestive units within cells. Their function is to break down complex components into simpler ones. They degrade complex components such as proteins (substrates) into simpler components
- When this process does not take place due to enzyme deficiency, the toxic substrates begin to accumulate in the cells. That is why these diseases are called “storage diseases”.
- Therefore, Lysosomal storage diseases are inherited metabolic diseases(Rare disease) that are characterized by an abnormal build-up of various toxic materials in the body’s cells as a result of enzyme deficiencies.
- Most lysosomal storage disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
- There are nearly 50 of these disorders altogether, and they may affect different parts of the body, including the skeleton, brain, skin, heart, and central nervous system
- There is currently no approved treatment for many lysosomal storage diseases.
- A rare disease is a health condition of low prevalence that affects a small number of people compared with other prevalent diseases in the general population.
- There is no universally accepted definition of rare diseases and the definitions usually vary across different countries.
- Though rare diseases are of low prevalence and individually rare, collectively they affect a considerable proportion of the population.
- 80% of rare diseases are genetic in origin and hence disproportionately impact children.
- In India there are 56-72 million people affected by rare diseases.
Context: Indian Navy (IN) Ships including indigenously built ASW corvette Kamorta and missile corvette Karmuk participated in the 2nd edition of India, Singapore and Thailand Trilateral Maritime Exercise SITMEX-20 in Andaman Sea.
- The first edition of SITMEX, hosted by Indian Navy, was conducted off Port Blair in September 2019.
- The SITMEX series of exercises are conducted to enhance mutual inter-operability and imbibing best practices between IN, Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) and Royal Thai Navy (RTN).
- The 2020 edition of the exercise is being hosted by RSN.
7. PROPOSAL TO DECARBONISE SHIPPING
Subject: International Agreements
Context: Governments across the globe have agreed to give further consideration to the concept of an International Maritime Organisation (IMO)-supervised, industry financed, $5-billion fund, to be governed by an autonomous board.
- The proposal , backed by eight of the global shipping industry’s top associations seeks to impose a mandatory levy of $2 per tonne of fuel consumed by ships to fund R&D projects by raising an estimated $500 million annually and $5 billion over 10 years.
- It could be used to to accelerate the introduction of zero-emission technologies for maritime transport.
- The fund would be administered by an autonomous organisation, to be called the International Maritime Research and Development Board (IMRB).
- India has not opposed the proposal but raised concerns on several areas which need detailed deliberations.
- The IMO’s greenhouse gas (GHG) strategy, adopted in 2018, sets ambitious targets to halve GHG emissions from ships by 2050, compared to 2008, and reduce carbon intensity of international shipping by 40 per cent by 2030.
- The IMO 2050 climate targets can only be achieved with the immediate acceleration of zero-carbon fuels and technologies.
International Maritime Organization
- The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
- It is a global standard-setting authority with responsibility to improve the safety and security of international shipping and prevention of marine and atmospheric pollution by ships.
- The IMO is not responsible for enforcing its policies. There is no enforcement mechanism to implement the policies of the IMO.
- Its main role is to create a regulatory framework for the shipping industry that is fair and effective, universally adopted and universally implemented.
- It is also involved in legal matters, including liability and compensation issues and the facilitation of international maritime traffic.
Subject: International Events
Context: The US anti-doping Act will target those involved in international dope fraud conspiracies even if it happens outside the United States.
- The Rodchenkov Act ( anti-doping)was passed by the Senate on Monday and will become a law once the US president signs it.
- It allows the USA to initiate legal proceedings against those involved in running doping rings, including coaches, officials, managers or suppliers even if they are not residents of the United States or if the act of doping took place outside the United States.
- The main objective of the Rodchenkov Act is to bring to book facilitators who otherwise got away when athletes who tested positive for performance-enhancing substances were banned under the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) code.
- The Act seeks to criminalise ‘major international dope fraud conspiracies’, which is mentioned in Section 4 of the Act.
- The Act will cover any ‘major international competition’ where one or more athletes from the United States participates and three or more from other countries are present.
- The Act also covers events where the competition organiser or sanctioned body has received sponsorship or funding from an organisation doing business in the United States, and the broadcaster has bought the rights to telecast in the United States.
- An offence will attract imprisonment of upto 10 years and a fine of upto $250,000 for individuals. Fines can go upto $1 million if a syndicate, lab or organisation is found to be indulging in doping related activities.
Subject: Current events
Context: Earlier this month, Haryana Deputy Chief Minister Dushyant Chautala said it would be better if both Haryana and Punjab agreed on Chandigarh as a Union Territory and make their independent capitals and Benches of High Courts.
- The statement once again brought into focus the long-simmering dispute between the two states over one of India’s most modern cities. But Punjab has always refuted Haryana’s claims over Chandigarh.
- At the time of reorganisation of Punjab in 1966, the city assumed the unique distinction of being the capital of both Punjab and Haryana, even as it was declared a union territory and was placed under the direct control of the Centre.
- In 1985, under the Rajiv-Longowal accord, Chandigarh was to be handed over to Punjab on January 26, 1986, but the Rajiv Gandhi government withdrew at the last minute.
- Haryana, on its part, has been demanding a separate High Court and even locked horns with Punjab by passing a resolution in the Vidhan Sabha demanding 20 rooms in the Vidhan Sabha complex that have been in the possession of Punjab.
Context: Centre, Tripura, and Mizoram have signed an agreement with the Bru/Reang community that promises to end their 23-year-old internal displacement crisis.
- Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram and Assam. In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group.
- In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state. In 1997, following ethnic clashes, nearly 37,000 Brus fled Mamit, Kolasib and Lunglei districts of Mizoram and were accommodated in relief camps in Tripura.
- Since then, 5,000 have returned to Mizoram in eight phases of repatriation, while 32,000 still live in six relief camps in North Tripura.
- In June 2018, community leaders from the Bru camps signed an agreement with the Centre and the two state governments, providing for repatriation in Mizoram. But most camp residents rejected the terms of the agreement.
- The camp residents say that the agreement doesn’t guarantee their safety in Mizoram.
- All Bru currently living in temporary relief camps in Tripura will be settled in the state, if they want to stay on. The Bru who returned to Mizoram in the eight phases of repatriation since 2009, cannot, however, come back to Tripura..
- The Centre will implement a special development project for the resettled Bru; this will be in addition to the Rs 600 crore fund announced for the process, including benefits for the migrants.
- Each resettled family will get 0.03 acre (1.5 ganda) of land for building a home, Rs 1.5 lakh as housing assistance, and Rs 4 lakh as a one-time cash benefit for sustenance.
- They will also receive a monthly allowance of Rs 5,000, and free rations for two years from the date of resettlement..
- Bru tribals would be included in Tripura’s voter list.