Daily Prelims Notes 26 June 2020
- June 26, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Article 371 A
- Salami Slicing strategy
- Environment Impact assessment
- Inland Water Ways
- HSN code
Nagaland Governor has expressed concern over the “precarious law and order” situation in the state where armed gangs have challenged the legitimacy of the constitutionally established state government on a daily basis. Added he could no longer abstain from constitutional obligations in the state under Article 371A (1) (b) of the Constitution.
- Article 371A of the Constitution mainly states that no act of Parliament would apply to the state of Nagaland in matter relating to religious or social practices of Nagas, Naga customary law and procedure, administration of civil or criminal justice involving decisions according to Naga customary law and ownership and transfer of land and its resources.
- The Legislative Assembly of Nagaland must pass a resolution for an act to be applicable to the state.
- The governor is given special responsibilities with respect to law and order in the state as well.
Under SPARC schemes, researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras are collaborating with their counterparts in Germany to develop low cost technology for hydrogen production.
- Scheme for Promotion of academic and Research Collaborationor SPARC is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
- This scheme will improve research ecosystem of India’s higher educational institutions by facilitating academic and research collaborations between Indian Institutions [overall top-100 or category-wise top-100 in NIRF and the best institutions in the world (top-500 overall and top-200 subject-wise institutions listed in QS World University Ranking) from 28 selected nations to jointly solve problems of national and international relevance.
- A set of Nodal Institutions (NI), from India, for each participating foreign country has been identified. The role of a NI is to help, handhold and coordinate with willing Participating Indian (PI) Institutions to forge alliance with the Institutions of concerned participating foreign country, for academic and research collaboration.
- SPARC proposes to enable productive academic cooperation by supporting the following critical components that can catalyze impact making research :
- Visits and long-term stay of top international faculty/researchers in Indian institutions to pursue teaching and research
- Visits by Indian students for training and experimentation in premier laboratories worldwide
- Joint development of niche courses, world-class books and monographs, translatable patents, demonstrable technologies or action oriented research outcomes and products
- Publication, Dissemination and Visibility through a high profile annual international conference in India.
China made intrusion into Galwan Valley, Hot Springs and Pangong Tso areas in Eastern Ladakh. This is seen as Chinese ‘salami slicing’ attempt to shift the Sino-India LAC further west in the disputed region
- In military terms, salami slicing is described as a strategy that involves divide and conquer process of threats and alliances to overcome opposition and acquire new territories.
- It is series of many small actions, often performed by clandestine means, that as an accumulated whole produces a much larger action or result that would be difficult or unlawful to perform all at once.
- In the context of China, salami slicing denotes its strategy of territorial expansion in the South China Sea and the Himalayan regions.
Several students unions in the country wrote letter to government to hold draft EIA notification 2020.
- Environment Impact Assessment or EIA can be defined as the study to predict the effect of a proposed activity/project on the environment. A decision making tool, EIA compares various alternatives for a project and seeks to identify the one which represents the best combination of economic and environmental costs and benefits.
- Till 1994, environmental clearance from the Central Government was an administrative decision and lacked legislative support.
- On 27 January 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, promulgated an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernisation of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification.
- The MoEFrecently notified new EIA legislation in September 2006. The notification makes it mandatory for various projects such as mining, thermal power plants, river valley, infrastructure (road, highway, ports, harbours and airports) and industries including very small electroplating or foundry units to get environment clearance.
- Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006 has decentralized the environmental clearance projects by categorizing the developmental projects in two categories, i.e., Category A (national level appraisal) and Category B (state level appraisal).
- Category A projects are appraised at national level by Impact Assessment Agency (IAA) and the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC) and Category B projects are apprised at state level.
- State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) and State Level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC) are constituted to provide clearance to Category B process.
The Shipping Ministry attempts to privatise the multi-modal cargo terminals at Varanasi, Haldia and Sahibganj on National Waterway 1 on equip-operate-transfer model
- The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) came into existence on 27th October 1986 for development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.
- The Authority primarily undertakes projects for development and maintenance of IWT infrastructure on national waterways through grant received from Ministry of Shipping.
- National Waterways: Survey, Navigation, Infrastructure and Regulations, Fairway Development, Pilotage and Coordination of IWT with other modes
- General: Advise Central Government, Carry out hydrographic surveys, Assist State Governments, Develop consultancy services, Research & Development, Classification of waterways and Standards & safety
National inland water ways:
- India has about 14,500 km of navigable waterways which comprise of rivers, canals, backwaters, creeks, etc.
- About 55 million tones of cargo is being moved annually by Inland Water Transport (IWT), a fuel – efficient and environment -friendly mode.
- Its operations are currently restricted to a few stretches in the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly rivers, the Brahmaputra, the Barak river, the rivers in Goa, the backwaters in Kerala, inland waters in Mumbai and the deltaic regions of the Godavari – Krishna rivers.
- To promote inland water transport in the country as an economical, environment friendly supplementary mode of transport to rail and road, 111 inland waterways (including 5 National Waterways declared earlier) were declared as ‘National Waterways’ under the National Waterways Act, 2016.
Subject: Science and tech
With Bayer’s $10.9-billion settlement in US, there may be rise in demand for glyphosate ban in India
- First developed in 1970, glyphosate is scientifically N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine under the IUPAC system of nomenclature.
- It is applied to the leaves of plants to kill weeds.
- As a non-selective herbicide (affecting a broad spectrum of weeds indiscriminately), glyphosate works by blocking an essential pathway for plant growth. Once absorbed by the plant, glyphosate binds to and blocks the activity of an enzyme called enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS).
- The EPSPS enzyme comes at the start of the shikimic acid pathway. By blocking this pathway, the plant cannot create certain proteins that are needed for growth.
- According to a 2016 bulletin published by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), the weedkiller in India goes by various brand names, including Roundup, Glycel, and Brake.
- Glyphosate was highly accepted by the tea planters in the past two decades. It has a very good market size in the tea sector of West Bengal and Assam.
- Presently, the consumption of glyphosate is highest in Maharashtra as it is becoming a key herbicide in sugarcane, maize and many fruit crops including mango, banana, grapes, pomegranate and citrus.
- In 2015, the Word Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer published a study that found glyphosate is “probably carcinogenic to humans”. Activists have been campaignig against glyphosate-based products.
7. HSN code
HSN code is in news over debate over GST rate for roti and Parotta.
- HSN is a six-digit code that classifies more than 5000 products, arranged in a legal and logical structure. To achieve uniform classification, the HSN is supported by well-defined rules and is accepted worldwide.
- HSN classification is widely used for taxation purposes by helping to identify the rate of tax applicable to a specific product in a country that is under review. It can also be used in calculations that involve claiming benefits.
- It also applies to import and exports. The HSN code aids in determining the quantity of all items imported or traded through a nation.
- While the primary purpose of the HSN code is the systematic classification of goods, it can also be used to gather data and solve problems that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. The result is a more efficient international trade system.
- HSN is in use worldwide, with 200+ countries participating. This impressive adoption rate can be chalked up to the benefits of HSN, which include:
- Collection of international trade statistics
- Provision of a rational basis for Customs tariffs
- Uniform classification
HSN Codes for GST in India:
- HSN will be applicable in India after implementation of GST. India has already been using HSN system in the Central Excise and Customs regime.
- It is a much more detailed classification that added another two digits to the 6-digit structure. There is a requirement to mention HSN code of items in tax invoice under GST.