Daily Prelims Notes 3 February 2021
- February 3, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
3 February 2021
All 6 CSE Prelims Qualified
4 CSE Mains Qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- OPERATION BLUE STAR
- BAND BARETHA WILDLIFFE SANCTUARY
- PROSOPIS JULIFLORA
- RUMPED, HIMALAYAN GRIFFON & SLENDER BILLED VULTURES
- SPUTNIK V
- NINTH SCHEDULE
- WASHINGTON CONSENSUS
- CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT
- INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING
- PCA FRAMEWORK
Subject : Internal Security
Context : Pressing for a speedy resolution of the farmers’ agitation, Punjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh invoked the state’s troubled past to remind an all-party meeting that prolonged negotiations that time too over a list of demands led to Operation Blue Star in 1984.
Operation Blue Star:
- It is a code name given to an Indian Military Operation to remove the separatists who were hidden inside the Golden Temple at Amritsar on 5th June 1984.
- The operation was ordered by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, primarily to take control of the Harmandir Sahib Complex in Amritsar (popularly known as the Golden Temple).
- The Indian military entered into the premises of the temple to drive out the Sikh extremist religious leader, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers.
- The operation had two components to it, Operation Metal which was the invasion on the temple complex and Operation Shop which was confined to the countryside of the state.
- This Operation helped in eliminating Khalistani terrorism.
- Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale wanted the Indian government to pass the Anandpur Resolution, and thereby agree to the formation of a separate state of Khalistan for Sikhs.
- Since 1982, this radical leader of Sikhism had managed to gain enough support for his cause and by mid-1983 had set up a base inside the Golden Temple complex, with ammunition and his followers.
Subject : Environment
Context : The standing committee of the Rajasthan wildlife board, headed by Chief Minister , cleared a proposal to shift Bharatpur’s Bandh Baretha wildlife sanctuary “southwestward” to exclude three forest blocks “damaged irreparably” by “rampant mining”.
- Band Baretha Wildlife Sanctuary is an old wildlife reserve of the rulers of bharatpur.
- In 1866 , Maharaja Jaswant singh started constructing a dam on kakund river which was completed by maharaja ram singh in 1897.
- About 200 sq.kms around the dam was declared as wildlife sanctuary in 1985.
- Wildlife Sanctuary is a bird watcher’s paradise because of over 200 species of birds , including the elusive Black Britten.
- It also has wild animals like Nilgai , Leopard , wolf , brock , wildboar , chital etc.
Subject : Environment
Context : The Delhi cabinet Monday approved a plan to restore over 400 hectares of the Central Ridge, that is currently covered by an invasive tree species planted by the British in the 1930.
- The five-year revival plan intends to turn the ridge into a full-grown forest with indigenous plants and trees that will provide a recreational space for people in the heart of the city, forest department officials said.
- The plan would be made possible with the removal of the vilayati kikar tree, or Prosopis juliflora, which allows no other species to thrive due to its weed-like properties — fast growth in arid conditions, depleting ground water and killing any competition.
- Prosopis Juliflora is a shrub or small tree in the family Fabaceae.
- It is native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean.
- It was initially introduced in India during colonial times. Since then it has become invasive species
- It causes stomach poisoning in livestock by inducing a permanent impairment of its ability to digest cellulose.
- It causes drying up of water bodies and ground water as it absorbs more than 4 litres of water to obtain one kg of biomass.
- It cannot even shelter birds as it produces less oxygen and more carbon dioxide.
- It causes land erosion due to the loss of the grasslands that are habitats for native plants and animals.
- Dispersal of the species is mainly through animals by endozoochory (dispersal by vertebrate animals).
- Other modes of seed dispersal are –
Autochory – Self dispersal
Barochory – Dispersal by gravity
Anemochory – Dispersal by air
Hyderochory – Dispersal by water
Chiropterochory – Dispersal by bats
Epizoochory – Dispersal by Non-vertebrate animals
Subject : Environment
Context : Residents of Dhulijan village in Assam’s Tinsukia district this Sunday performed shradh (a religious ritual to honour the dead) ceremony for 36 vultures that had died last month due to poisoning.
- 37 vultures belonging to three endangered species died in eastern Assam after feeding on pesticide-laced cattle carcass.
- Most of the 37 vultures that died are Himalayan griffon. A few are oriental white-backed and slender-billed vultures.
- Scientific name: Gyps himalayensis.
- It is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae. It is one of the two largest Old World vultures and true raptors.
- Distribution: This species is found along the Himalayas and the adjoining Tibetan Plateau.
- International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status: Near Threatened species.
White Rumped Vulture
- Scientific Name : Gyps bengalensis
- The white-rumped vulture is an Old World vulture native to South and Southeast Asia.
- Distribution : The white-rumped vulture was very common especially in the Gangetic plains of India, and often seen nesting on the avenue trees within large cities in the region.
- It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List .
Slender Billed Vulture
- Scientic name : Gyps tenuirostris
- The slender-billed vulture is found along the Sub-Himalayan regions and into Southeast Asia.
- It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Subject : Science & technology
Context : An interim analysis of data from the phase 3 trial of the Covid-19 vaccine from Russia — Gam-COVID-Vac, or Sputnik V — suggests that a two-dose regimen offers 91.6% efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19.
- The vaccine has been called Sputnik V, named after the first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik-I launched by the Soviet Union.
- It is the first Covid-19 vaccine to be approved.
- This vaccine has been developed by Moscow’s Gamaleya Institute in collaboration with the Russia’s defence ministry.
- The vaccine is based on the DNA of a SARS-CoV-2 type adenovirus, a common cold virus.
- The vaccine uses the weakened virus to deliver small parts of a pathogen and stimulate an immune response.
- The vaccine is administered in two doses and consists of two types of a human adenovirus, each carrying an S-antigen of the new coronavirus, which enter human cells and produce an immune response.
Adenovirus Vector Vaccine :
- In this vaccine, adenovirus is used as a tool to deliver genes or vaccine antigens to the target host tissue.
- Adenovirus: Adenoviruses (ADVs) are DNA viruses ranging from 70-90 nanometre in size, which induce many illnesses in humans like cold, respiratory infection etc.
- Adenoviruses are preferred for vaccines because their DNA is double stranded which makes them genetically more stable and the chances of them changing after injection are lower.
- Rabies vaccine is an adenovirus vaccine.
- However, there are drawbacks of adenovirus vector vaccines like pre-existing immunity in humans, inflammatory responses etc.
- Just as human bodies develop immune responses to most real viral infections, they also develop immunity to adenoviral vectors.
- Since adenoviral vectors are based on natural viruses that some humans might already have been exposed to, these vaccines might not work for everyone.
Subject : Polity
Context : The Supreme Court on Tuesday agreed to examine a petition seeking an immediate stay on the implementation of a Tamil Nadu law that allows 69% quota in educational institutions and government jobs in the State.
- Tamil Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of seats in Educational Institutions and of appointments or posts in the Services under the State) Act of 1993 is protected under the ninth Schedule of the Constitution from judicial review.
- Section 4 of the Act provides 30% reservation to the Backward Classes, 20% for the Most Backward Classes and de-notified communities, 18% for the Scheduled Castes and 1% for the Scheduled Tribes. Thus, a total of 69% reservation is provided.
- The Schedule contains a list of central and state laws which cannot be challenged in courts and was added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951.
- The first Amendment added 13 laws to the Schedule. Subsequent amendments in various years have taken the number of protected laws to 284 currently.
- It was created by the new Article 31B, which along with Article 31A was brought in by the government to protect laws related to agrarian reform and for abolishing the Zamindari system.
- While Article 31A extends protection to ‘classes’ of laws, Article 31B shields specific laws or enactments.
- While most of the laws protected under the Schedule concern agriculture/land issues, the list includes other subjects.
- Article 31B also has a retrospective operation which means that if laws are inserted in the Ninth Schedule after they are declared unconstitutional, they are considered to have been in the Schedule since their commencement, and thus valid.
- Although Article 31B excludes judicial review, the apex court has said in the past that even laws under the Ninth Schedule would be open to scrutiny if they violated Fundamental Rights or the basic structure of the Constitution.
Subject : Economics
Context : The Budget marks an important departure from one of the key tenets of the Washington Consensus, the framework for market-oriented economics which has dominated policy making in most parts of the world
- The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions by Washington, D.C.-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
- It constitutes the “standard” reform package promoted for crisis-stricken developing countries.
- The prescriptions encompassed policies in such areas as macroeconomic stabilization, economic opening with respect to both trade and investment, and expansion of market forces within the domestic economy.
10 Policy prescriptions:
- Fiscal policy discipline, with avoidance of large fiscal deficits relative to GDP.
- Redirection of public spending from subsidies (especially indiscriminate subsidies) toward broad-based provision of key pro-growth, pro-poor services like primary education, primary health care and infrastructure investment.
- Tax reform, broadening the tax base and adopting moderate marginal tax rates.
- Interest rates that are market determined and positive (but moderate) in real terms.
- Competitive exchange rates.
- Trade liberalization: Liberalization of imports, with particular emphasis on elimination of quantitative restrictions (licensing, etc.); any trade protection to be provided by low and relatively uniform tariffs.
- Liberalization of inward foreign direct investment.
- Privatization of state enterprises.
- Deregulation: Abolition of regulations that impede market entry or restrict competition, except for those justified on safety, environmental and consumer protection grounds, and prudential oversight of financial institutions.
- Legal security for property rights.
Subject : National Legislations
Context : The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed the Lok Sabha on Tuesday that a parliamentary committee on subordinate legislation had granted it extension till April 9 to frame the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA), 2019 rules.
- The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 seeks to amend the Citizenship Act, 1955.
- The Citizenship Act,1955 provides various ways in which citizenship may be acquired. It provides for citizenship by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and by incorporation of the territory into India.
- In addition, it regulates the registration of Overseas Citizen of India Cardholders (OCIs) and their rights. An OCI is entitled to some benefits such as a multiple-entry, multipurpose lifelong visa to visit India.
Key Features of CAA
- Citizenship on the basis of religion: The Bill amends the Citizenship Act, 1955, and for the first time, will grant citizenship on the basis of religion to non-Muslim communities from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who entered India on or before December 31, 2014.
- Non – Muslim Communities Included: Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian. This implies that migrants, who identify themselves with any group or community other than those mentioned here, from the above mentioned countries won’t be eligible for citizenship.
- Exceptions: The provisions on citizenship for illegal migrants will not apply to two categories – states protected by the ‘Inner Line’, and areas covered under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
- Inner Line Permit (ILP): This is a special permit that citizens from other parts of India require to enter a state protected by the ILP regime. Without an ILP granted by the state government, an Indian from another state cannot visit a state that is under the ILP regime.
- Sixth Schedule: The Sixth Schedule relates to special provisions in administration of certain Northeastern states (Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura). It provides special powers for Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) in these states.
- Citizenship by Naturalization
- Under The Citizenship Act, 1955, one of the requirements for citizenship by naturalisation is that the applicant must have resided in India during the last 12 months, as well as for 11 of the previous 14 years.
- The amendment relaxes the second requirement from 11 years to 5 years as a specific condition for applicants belonging to the specified six religions, and the above mentioned three countries.
- Additional Ground for Cancelling Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) Registration i.e. violation of any law notified by the central government.
- However, the Bill does not provide any guidance on the nature of laws which the central government may notify.
Subject : Economics
Context : The initial public offering (IPO) of India’s largest insurance company LIC is likely after October this year, a top official said.
- Government had introduced the legislative amendments required for disinvestment of a stake in Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and IDBI Bank through the Finance Bill, 2021 presented along with the Budget.
Initial Public Offering :
- IPO is the selling of securities to the public in the primary market.
- Primary market deals with new securities being issued for the first time. It is also known as the new issues market.
- It is different from secondary market where existing securities are bought and sold. It is also known as the stock market or stock exchange.
- It is when an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or an offer for sale of its existing securities or both for the first time to the public.
- Unlisted companies are companies that are not listed on the stock exchange.
- It is generally used by new and medium-sized firms that are looking for funds to grow and expand their business.
Subject : Economics
Context : The Finance Ministry expects the remaining three public sector banks (PSBs) to be out of the RBI’s prompt corrective action (PCA) framework in two months, as their financial health has improved.
- Indian Overseas Bank, Central Bank of India and UCO Bank are currently under this framework which puts several restrictions on them, including on lending, management compensation and directors’ fees.
Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) Framework
- PCA is a framework under which banks with weak financial metrics are put under watch by the RBI.
- The RBI introduced the PCA framework in 2002 as a structured early-intervention mechanism for banks that become under capitalised due to poor asset quality, or vulnerable due to loss of profitability.
- It aims to check the problem of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) in the Indian banking sector.
- The framework was reviewed in 2017 based on the recommendations of the working group of the Financial Stability and Development Council on Resolution Regimes for Financial Institutions in India and the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission.
- PCA is intended to help alert the regulator as well as investors and depositors if a bank is heading for trouble.
- The idea is to head off problems before they attain crisis proportions.
- Essentially PCA helps RBI monitor key performance indicators of banks, and taking corrective measures, to restore the financial health of a bank.
- The PCA framework deems banks as risky if they slip some trigger points – capital to risk weighted assets ratio (CRAR), net NPA, Return on Assets (RoA) and Tier 1 Leverage ratio.
- Certain structured and discretionary actions are initiated in respect of banks hitting such trigger points.
- The PCA framework is applicable only to commercial banks and not to co-operative banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs).
Subject : Economy
Context : Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced an increase in the allocation to the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) from 30,000 crore to 40,000 crore.
- The Rural Infrastructure Development Fund(RIDF) was set up by the Government of India in 1995-96 for financing ongoing rural Infrastructure projects.
- The Fund is maintained by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development(NABARD).
- The main objective of the Fund is to provide loans to State Governments and State-owned corporations to enable them to complete ongoing rural infrastructure projects.
- The activities to be financed under RIDF as classified under three broad categories namely a) Agriculture and related sector b) Social sector and c) Rural connectivity.