Daily Prelims Notes 4 January 2023
- January 4, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
4 January 2023
Table Of Contents
- No additional curbs on free speech by minister
- 108th Science congress
- Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)
- How termite behaviour is linked to a warming world
- How the Earth’s tilt creates short, cold January days
- Men are slowly losing their Y chromosome, but a new sex gene discovery in spiny rats brings hope for humanity
- Perfect storm: What is the Fujiwhara Effect?
- New MoEFCC notification on fly ash includes solar, wind power plants for reclamation
- What is causing the winter heat wave in Europe?
- Preventing animal cruelty is a duty of the state
- Al-Aqsa Mosque
- International Court of Justice (ICJ) to take up Israel occupation
- The Supreme Court in its recent judgement said that a statement made by a minister cannot be attributed to the government by invoking the principle of collective responsibility.
More about the news:
- In the majority of the five judges ruled that a statement made by a minister even if traceable to any affairs of the state or for protection of the government cannot be attributed vicariously to the government by invoking the principle of collective responsibility.
- In a 4:1 majority judgement, the five-judge bench of the Supreme Court held that additional restrictions, not found in Article 19(2) of the Constitution, cannot be imposed on the exercise of right to free speech which is guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a).
- The Court ruled that the grounds mentioned in Article 19(2) for restricting free speech are exhaustive and it guarantees freedom of speech and expression to all citizens of India.
- This article is subjected to certain restrictions, namely, sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense.
- Provisions in clauses (2) to (6) of Article 19 authorizes the State to restrict the exercise of the freedom guaranteed under the article.
What is the Principle of Collective Responsibility:
- The Principle of Collective Responsibility is the bedrock principle of parliamentary form of government.
- Article 75 of the Constitution of India states that the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
- This means that all the ministers own joint responsibility to the Lok Sabha for all their acts.
- When the Lok Sabha passes a no-confidence motion against the council of ministers, all the ministers have to resign including those ministers who are from the Rajya Sabha.
- The principle of collective responsibility also means that the Cabinet decisions bind all cabinet ministers even if they differed in the cabinet meeting.
- It is the duty of every minister to stand by cabinet decisions and support them both within and outside the Parliament. If any minister disagrees with a cabinet decision and is not prepared to defend it, he must resign.
Some Important Judgements of the Supreme Court with respect to Collective Responsibility:
- Common Cause v Union of India case -In this the Supreme Court held that the principle of collective responsibility has two meanings.
- Firstly, that all the members of a government are unanimous in support of policy.
- Secondly, the ministers are responsible for the success and failures of the policies.
- S.P. Anand v H.D. Deve Gowda case –In this case the court held that the principle of collective responsibility means all the ministers are collectively responsible for every decision taken whether their assent is present or not. It means their decisions must have unanimity and confidentiality.
Subject: Science and Technology
- PM Modi inaugurated the 108th Indian Science Congress (ISC) being held in Nagpur via video conferencing.
What is Indian Science Congress:
- Indian Science Congress is a one-of-its-kind event in the country which brings together the scientific communities on a platform for their interaction with students and the general public on matters related to science.
- The event is organized by the Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA).
- ISCA is an independent body functioning with the support of the Department of Science and Technology in the central government.
- The Association was formed with the following objectives:
- To advance and promote the cause of Science in India.
- To hold an annual Congress at a suitable place in India.
- To publish such proceedings, journals, transactions and other publications as may be considered desirable.
- To secure and manage funds and endowments for the promotion of science including the rights of disposing of or selling all or any portion of the properties of the Association;
- The first session of the Indian Science Congress was held in 1914 at the premises of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta.
- The focal theme of this year’s Indian Science Congress is “Science and Technology for Sustainable Development with Women Empowerment”.
Subject: Science and Technology
- An unexploded artillery shell was found near the official residence of Punjab Chief Minister Bhagwant Mann in Chandigarh.
What is an Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)?
- A military ammunition or explosive device that remains unexploded even after it has been primed and fired is known as Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) in military parlance.
- Such UXO can be left-overs from a war, a military battle inoculation exercise, field firing exercises or even be part of military scrap that is often exported from one country to another to extract metal.
Are such unexploded munitions dangerous?
- Yes. All unexploded munitions are treated as potentially dangerous and capable of detonating till proven otherwise by professional assessment by military ammunition experts.
How do such unexploded munitions reach civilian hands?
- Locals of the area pick it up to sell it as scraps.
- Many times it exploded while scrap dealers were trying to remove copper from the ammunition.
Procedure to dispose it off safely:
- Whenever such unexploded ammunition is found by civilians, it is always advised to maintain a safe distance and inform the nearest police or district administration official.
- The civilian administration is expected to get in touch with the nearest Army station, which will then dispatch Army Ordnance Corps personnel, who are ammunition experts and can identify the ordinance and the safest way of disposing of it.
Subject : Environment
What did the study find?
- A recent study has found that termites decompose wood at a much higher rate in warmer conditions.
- For every 10 degrees Celsius increase in temperature, their decomposition activity goes up by almost seven times.
- These wood-eating termites were able to survive in warm and dry conditions, unlike microbes that need water to grow.
Details of the study:
- The study revealed that as the Earth gets warmer, termites will rapidly spread across the world.
- This could, in turn, lead to a further rise in global temperatures, because these small insects while consuming deadwood release carbon into the atmosphere.
- It shows that the movement of an organism as small as a termite can cascade to impact the rate that wood—a global carbon stock—is decomposed.
- 12 of the world’s 13 most invasive termite species could increase significantly in distribution by 2050.
- There are around 3,000 species of termites across the world, including the ones that consume plant material and even soil. Prominent among them are the wood-eating termites.
- They play a vital role in the planet’s ecosystem i.e. decomposing dead wood.
How will they increase global warming?
- Termites release carbon from dead wood in the form of carbon dioxide and methane, two of the most important greenhouse gases.
- So, an increase in termite population and their faster decomposing activity can cause more greenhouse emissions, resulting in a hotter planet.
Other consequences of global warming:
- Imbalance in the health of the ecosystem.
- Melting of polar ice leads to disruption in the food chain of the arctic region.
Subject : Geography
How does the Earth’s orbit influence our daylight and temperatures?
- During the 24 hours that it takes for the Earth to rotate once around its axis, every point on its surface faces toward the Sun for part of the time and away from it for part of the time.
- This is what causes daily changes in sunlight and temperature.
- There are two other important factors:
- The Earth is round, although it’s not a perfect sphere.
- Its axis is tilted about 23.5 degrees relative to its path around the Sun.
- As a result, light falls directly on its equator but strikes the North and South poles at angles.
Why does it often get colder in January even though we’re gaining daylight?
- Earth absorbs sunlight and then radiates it back into the atmosphere.
- The radiation back from earth heats the atmosphere.
- So, as long as the part of earth receives less sunlight than the heat it emits, the area will keep getting colder.
- This is especially true over land, which loses heat much more easily than water.
- As the Earth rotates, air circulates around it in the atmosphere.
- During winter the air comes from the colder regions, which further drops the temperature.
How quickly do we lose daylight before the solstice and gain it back afterward?
- This depends strongly on our location.
- The closer we are to one of the poles, the faster the rate of change in daylight is.
- Even for a particular location, the change is not constant through the year.
- The rate of change in daylight is slowest at the solstices — December in winter, June in summer — and fastest at the equinoxes, in mid-March and mid-September.
- This change occurs as the area on Earth receiving direct sunlight swings from 23.5 N latitude to 23.5 S latitude.
What’s happening in the southern hemisphere right now?
- The summer is peaking there, with the largest amount of sunlight.
- But due to less land and more water in the southern hemisphere, they have fewer extreme climatic events (both in numbers and intensity) than that of the northern hemisphere.
Subject : Science and Technology
- The sex of human and other mammal babies is decided by a male-determining gene on the Y chromosome. But the human Y chromosome is degenerating and may disappear in a few million years, leading to our extinction unless we evolve a new sex gene.
What are chromosomes?
- Chromosomes are the genetic material present in all cells. They are present in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They are a thread-like structure.
- Each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell contains DNA and associated proteins, known as histone proteins. They are responsible for the hereditary traits and passed from parents to offspring from one generation to another.
- Humans have 22 pairs of numbered chromosomes (autosomes) and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX or XY), for a total of 46.
- Each pair contains two chromosomes, one coming from each parent, which means that children inherit half of their chromosomes from their mother and a half from their father.
How the Y chromosome determines human sex:
- In humans, as in other mammals, females have two X chromosomes and males have a single X and a puny little chromosome called Y.
- The X stood for “unknown”.
- The X contains about 900 genes that do all sorts of jobs unrelated to sex.
- But the Y contains few genes (about 55) and a lot of non-coding DNA — simple repetitive DNA that contains an all-important gene that kick-starts male development in the embryo. At about 12 weeks after conception, this master gene switches on others that regulate the development of a testis.
- The embryonic testis makes male hormones (testosterone and its derivatives), which ensures the baby develops as a boy.
- This master sex gene was identified as SRY (sex region on the Y) in 1990.
- It works by triggering a genetic pathway starting with a gene called SOX9 which is key for male determination in all vertebrates, although it does not lie on sex chromosomes.
The disappearing Y:
- In another mammal i.e. platypus, the number of X and Y chromosomes are equal.
- This must mean the Y chromosome has lost 900–55 active genes over the 166 million years that humans and platypus have been evolving separately.
- That’s a loss of about five genes per million years. At this rate, the last 55 genes will be gone in 11 million years.
Rodents with no Y chromosome:
- Two rodent lineages that have already lost their Y chromosome – and are still surviving.
- Although it’s not yet clear how the mole voles determine sex without the SRY gene.
What does this means for the future of men?
- Some lizards and snakes are female-only species and can make eggs out of their own genes via what’s known as parthenogenesis.
- But this can’t happen in humans or other mammals because we have at least 30 crucial “imprinted” genes that work only if they come from the father via sperm.
Chromosomal disorders: (Numerical abnormalities)
Chromosomal disorder: (Structural abnormalities)
- Super cyclone Hinnamnor and tropical storm Gardo approach each other and Hinnamnor devours the Gardo, making final landfall in the South Korea region, a phenomenon known as the Fujiwhara effect.
Merger of two storms-
- When two ocean storms form in the same region, their wind circulations start meeting each other at the mid and higher levels.
- This meeting of winds makes a bond between the two storms like a connecting limb through which they start influencing each other.
- In this case, Hinnamnor’s intensity decreased and Gardo vanished.
- But in an increasingly warming world, a merger between two large enough tropical cyclones over any of the global oceans could lead to the formation of a mega cyclone, causing devastation along coastlines.
Recent incidents of storm merger-
- In recent years, several storms have come close to undergoing the Fujiwhara effect.
- Just a week after Hinnamnor engulfed Gardo, two hurricanes—Danielle and Earl—formed one after the other in the North Atlantic Ocean, sparking fears of the Fujiwhara effect.
- Around the same time, another hurricane— Kay—also brewed in the eastern Pacific Ocean.
- In 2020 hurricanes Marco and Laura had formed back to back in the small region of the Gulf of Mexico and created a possibility of the Fujiwhara effect.
THE FUJIWHARA effect-
- THE FUJIWHARA effect is any interaction between tropical storms formed around the same time in the same ocean region with their centres or eyes at a distance of less than 1,400 km, with intensity that could vary between a depression (wind speed under 63 km per hour) and a super typhoon (wind speed over 209 km per hour).
- The interaction could lead to changes in the track and intensity of either or both storm systems.
- In rare cases, the two systems could merge, especially when they are of similar size and intensity, to form a bigger storm.
- There are five different ways in which the Fujiwhara effect can take place.
- The first is elastic interaction in which only the direction of motion of the storms changes and is the most common case.
- These are also the cases that are difficult to assess and need closer examination.
- The second is partial straining out in which a part of the smaller storm is lost to the atmosphere.
- The third is complete straining out in which the smaller storm is completely lost to the atmosphere.
- The straining out does not happen for storms of equal strength.
- The fourth type is a partial merger in which the smaller storm merges into the bigger one.
- The fifth is a complete merger which takes place between two storms of similar strength.
- During a merger interaction between two tropical cyclones, the wind circulations come together and form a sort of whirlpool of winds in the atmosphere.
- The Fujiwhara effect was identified by Sakuhei Fujiwhara, a Japanese meteorologist whose first paper recognising the Fujiwhara cases was published in 1921.
- The first known instance of the effect was in 1964 in the western Pacific Ocean when typhoons Marie and Kathy merged.
Is the frequency of the Fujiwhara effect increasing?
- Research shows that it is. Just between 2013 and 2017, there were 10 cases of the Fujiwhara effect, mostly weak interactions, in the northwest Pacific Ocean.
- As the oceans get warmer and there is more number of stronger cyclones the possibility of the Fujiwhara effect would increase drastically as it already has.
- There has been a 35 per cent increase in the strength of typhoons that have hit Taiwan between 1977 and 2016.
- This happened due to a 0.4 to 0.7°C rise in the sea surface temperature during these 40 years in the northwest Pacific.
- It shows how global warming is responsible for making cyclones stronger, and thus increasing the chances of the Fujiwhara effect.
- The occurrence of the Fujiwhara Effect makes cyclones more unpredictable due to their rapid intensification, carrying of more rain and newer ways of moving over warming oceans.
- In the case of typhoons Parma and Melor in 2009, it became extremely difficult for forecasters to track the movement or intensity of either of the storms, especially Parma, and provide people with an early warning because of the Fujiwhara interaction between the two storms.
- In April 2021, a similar event happened in the Indian Ocean, when cyclone Seroja interacted with cyclone Odette just off the coast of Western Australia gaining strength and moving in uncharted ways.
- Seroja became a unique storm because the north-western coast of Australia is prone to cyclones while the south-western part hit by the cyclone does not get much storm activity.
NO COLLATED DATA
- There is no collated dataset.
- There is no worldwide accepted technique or recording agency dedicated to recognising and collecting the cases of the Fujiwhara effect as these are rare events and tough to assess.
- The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) clarified the compliance dates for the complete utilisation of fly ash for thermal power plants (TPP) in a new notification.
Major Highlights of the notification:
- It is mandatory for Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) to ensure 100% utilisation of fly ash within three to five years.
- It also introduced fines of Rs 1,000 on non-compliant plants under the ‘polluter pays principle’.
- The ‘polluter pays’ principle is the commonly accepted practice that those who produce pollution should bear the costs of managing it to prevent damage to human health or the environment.
- Under this, the collected fines will be deposited in the designated account of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
- The fine collected by CPCB from the TPPs and other defaulters shall be used towards the safe disposal of the unutilised ash.
- It also deals with unutilised accumulated ash (legacy ash) where TPPs will have to utilise it within 10 years from the date of publication of final notification in a staggered manner.
- The utilisation of legacy ash was not required in areas where reclamation has taken place with greenbelts or plantations, stated the sub-para 6 of the last notification.
- Solar and wind power plants will exempt TPPs from fly ash utilisation.
- If the utilisation of legacy ash is not completed at the end of 10 years, a fine of Rs 1000 per tonne will be imposed on the remaining unutilised quantity which has not been fined earlier.
Price Cap for bricks made of fly ash:
- The new notification has done away with the price cap on fly ash bricks.
- But the new notice has introduced a parameter stating the price of the fly ash bricks will be decided according to the Department Schedule Rates (DSR) of Central Public Works Department (CPWD) or Public Works Department (PWD) concerned.
- The new notification states the cost of fly ash bricks will not be more than the price mentioned in the schedule of rates as specified by CPWD or PWD concerned. If not mentioned in the schedule of rates, it cannot be higher than the price of alternative products.
Objectives and Need:
- Fly ash utilisation in India has increased from nearly 10% in 1996-97 to the highest level of over 83% during 2019-20, unutilised ash gets dumped in an environmentally hazardous manner, polluting air, water and soil.
- It aims to deal with environmentally hazardous fly ash generated from coal and lignite based thermal power plants (TPPs).
What is Fly Ash?
- Fly ash is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in thermal power plants.
- During combustion, mineral impurities in the coal (clay, feldspar, quartz, and shale) fuse in suspension and float out of the combustion chamber with the exhaust gases. As the fused material rises, it cools and solidifies into spherical glassy particles called fly ash.
- The low-grade coal used in thermal power generation carries 30-45% ash content. The high-grade imported coal has a low ash content of 10-15%.
- Since most of the coal used in thermal plants is low-grade, it generates a large quantity of ash which requires a large area as landfill or ponds for disposal.
- All fly ashes exhibit cementitious properties to varying degrees depending on the chemical and physical properties of both the fly ash and cement.
- Fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO).
- It is an excellent material for making construction materials such as bricks, mosaic tiles and hollow blocks.
- Bricks made of fly ash can help conserve soil to a great extent.
- There are several eco-friendly ways to utilise fly ash so that it does not pollute air and water.
- It includes the use of fly ash in the manufacturing of cement, ready-mix concrete; constructing roads, dams and embankment, and filling of low-lying areas and mines.
- Fly ash contains toxic and heavy metals, like, nickel, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and lead.
- It contains 100 times more radiation than that of nuclear waste.
- The ponds where fly ash is usually dumped are poorly managed. Fly ash becomes dry as temperature increases and gets airborne.
- Thus, it becomes one of the major sources of air and water pollution.
- Air in areas around coal-fired power plants is polluted with fly ash.
- Apart from causing various diseases, it also leads to reduction in the recharging of groundwater.
- Optimum utilization of fly ash: To facilitate 100% ash utilization by all coal based thermal power plants, a web portal for monitoring of fly ash generation and utilization data of Thermal Power Plants and a mobile based application titled “ASHTRACK” has been launched by the Government.
- Ash-park has developed, and awareness programme for utilisation of fly ash and its products conducted at various platforms..
- Roles played NTPC: National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) has developed an infrastructure to transport fly ash from power plants in bulk to cement plants, at a cheaper cost.
- NTPC intends to transform the fly ash it produces into a revenue-generating by-product.
- It has developed geopolymer and nano aggregates from residual fly ash for use in the construction of roads and houses as a manifestation of this.
- Several parts of Europe witnessed an unprecedented winter heat wave over New Year’s weekend calling it an “extreme event”, experts said that temperatures increased 10 to 20 degrees Celsius above normal.
More on news:
- At least seven countries recorded their hottest January weather ever.
- These included Poland, Denmark, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia.
What is a heat dome?
- A heat dome occurs when an area of high-pressure traps warm air over a region, just like a lid on a pot, for an extended period of time.
- The longer that air remains trapped, the more the sun works to heat the air, producing warmer conditions with every passing day.
- Heat domes generally stay for a few days but sometimes they can extend up to weeks, which might cause deadly heat waves.
- Scientists suggest that any region of high pressure, whether a heat dome or not, forces air to sink and once it reaches the ground, it gets compressed and becomes even warmer.
- Moreover, when air sinks, it gets drier and further raises the temperature of the area.
What is the relationship between heat domes and the jet stream?
- The heat dome’s formation is related to the behaviour of the jet stream — an area of fast-moving air high in the atmosphere.
- The jet stream is believed to have a wave-like pattern that keeps moving from north to south and then north again.
- When these waves get bigger and elongated, they move slowly and sometimes can become stationary.
- This is when a high-pressure system gets stuck and leads to the occurrence of a heat dome.
- With the rising temperatures, it is expected that the jet stream will become more wavy and will have larger deviations, causing more frequent extreme heat events.
Subject : Polity
Context: Soon, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court of India will deliver verdict on the validity of Tamil Nadu’s law permitting the practice of jallikattu in the State.
History of Jallikattu issue:
- Jallikattu first came underlegal scrutiny in early 2000s when the Animal Welfare Board of India and the animal rights group PETA moved petitions in the Supreme Court against Jallikattu as well as bullock cart races.
- In 2006, the Madras High Court banned the sportafter the death of a young spectator.
- The Tamil Nadu government, however, worked its way out of the ban by passing a law in 2009 the Tamil Nadu Regulation of Jallikattu Act, 2009.
- In 2011, the Environment Ministry at the Center issued a notification specifically mentioning ‘bulls’.
- The Jallikattu practice continued to be held because of the Tamil Nadu Regulation Act 27 of 2009 even after the 2011 notice.
- The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) filed a petition in the Supreme Court again and contested that –
- The regulations were not being followed and that bulls were indeed being subjected to cruelty as defined under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.
- The SupremeCourt in its 2014 verdict banned Jallikattu and struck down the Tamil Nadu Regulation of Jallikattu Act, 2009. (Animal Welfare Board of India v. A. Nagaraja, a two-judge Bench of the Supreme Court declared jallikattu illegitimate. The court found that the practice was cruel and caused the animal unnecessary pain and suffering.)
- In January 2016, in what could be seen as a clearly political move, the Union environment ministry revoked the ban by issuing a notification months before the elections in Tamil Nadu were due to be held.
- In January 2016, the Supreme Court stayed this 2016 Union Government notification,as it was challenged by the AWBI and PETA.
- In January 2017, several hundreds of protesters conducted a rally at Chennai Marina opposing the ban on Jallikattu.
- In January 2017, Tamil Nadu passed the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Tamil Nadu Amendment) Act of 2017 and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Conduct of Jallikattu) Rules of 2017.
- The statutes had re-opened the gates for the conduct of the popular bull-taming sport in the name of culture and tradition despite the 2014 ban by the Supreme Court.
- In the aftermath of Jallikattu comeback due to Tamilnadu legislation the Supreme Court had referred a bunch of petitions to the Constitution Bench in February 2018.
- Jallikattu is a bull taming event practiced in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations. A tradition over 2,000 years old, Jallikattu is a competitive sport as well as an event to honour bull owners who rear them for mating.
- It is celebrated on Mattu Pongale the 3rd day of the four-day long harvest, Pongal.
- Jallikattu is derived from the words ‘calli’ and ‘kattu’, which means a bundle of coins is tied to the bull’s horns.
- Bulls are brought to a common place where the ritual happens. The participants are supposed to embrace the bull’s hump and try to tame it by bringing the bull to a stop.
- It is popular in Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Theni, Pudukkottai and Dindigul districts of Tamil Nadu known as the Jallikattu belt.
- Jallikattu is considered a traditional way for the peasant community to preserve their pure-breed native bulls like Kangayam, Pulikulam, Umbalachery, Bargur and MalaiMaadu
- Bulls get precedence over cows because it helps in the ploughing of field, pulling their cart of goods and mating with cows to produce more offspring and in turn more production of milk.
- About Kambala https://optimizeias.com/kambala-2/
Legal remedies for Animal Cruelty:
- The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960 recognises that animals can suffer physically and mentally, and is applicable to ‘all living creatures’.
- The Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) is the central body responsible for animal welfare in the country.
- The National Institute for Animal Welfare created in 1999, has the broad mandate to improve animal welfare through research, education and public outreach.
- According to Section 50(4) of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, a Wildlife Offence Report (WLOR) can be filed.
Constitutional protection for animals
- The Constitution of India establishes a duty on both the State as well as on people to ensure security and conservation of animals at all costs.
- Article 48A:
- According to Article 48A, it is the responsibility of the State to improve the strength of animals and safeguard the wildlife of the country. It shall strive to enhance the population of animals and ensure that they are protected from all attacks.
- Article 51A(g):
- According to Article 51A(g), it is the Fundamental Duty of every citizen to protect and improve forests and wildlife and to have compassion for all living creatures.
- Article 21:
- Due to the expansive interpretation taken by the courts, the rights of the animals are also protected under Article 21 of the Constitution.
- Every species has a right to life and security, in accordance with the law of the land, and this right is not merely limited to human beings but is expanded to include within its ambit animals and birds as well.
- Article 48A:
About Prevention of cruelty of animal act,1960
- The act prohibits any person from inflicting, causing, or if it is the owner, permitting, unnecessary pain or suffering to be inflicted on any animal.
- The act provides forpunishment for causing unnecessary cruelty and suffering to animals.
- Act has established the definition of animals to include any living creature other than human beings.
- Section 2of the act defines animals and types of animals like domestic or captive animals.
- Section 4 of the act provides for theAnimal Welfare Board of India (AWBI), a statutory advisory body for animal welfare and protection of animals from unnecessary suffering and pain.
- The act mentions forms of cruelty, exceptions, and killing of a suffering animalin case any cruelty has been committed against it, so as to relieve it from further suffering.
- The act alsoprovides the guidelines relating to experimentation on animals for scientific purposes.
- Ananimal cannot be exhibited or trained by any person, if:
- Such a person is unregistered as per the provisions
- Such an animal has been barred from being included in any performance by the Central Government through a notification in the Official Gazette.
- Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying, submitted a draft Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Amendment) Bill 2022 for public comment.
- For more details about draft bill https://optimizeias.com/prevention-of-cruelty-of-animal-act-1960/
Animal Welfare Board of India:
- The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country.
- Established in 1962 under Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (No. 59 of 1960), the Animal Welfare Board of India was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian.
- From ensuring that animal welfare laws in the country are diligently followed, to provide grants to Animal Welfare Organizations and advising the Government of India on animal welfare issues, the Board has been the face of the animal welfare movement in the country for the last 50 years.
- The Board consists of 28 Members.
- The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years.
- The Board was initially within the jurisdiction of the Government of India’s Ministry of Food and Agriculture. In 1990, the subject of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was transferred to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, where it now resides.
- Headquarters shifted to Ballabhgarh in Faridabad District of Haryana from Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Subject: International relations
Context: ISRAEL’SNEW far-right national security minister Itamar Ben Gvir briefly visited Al Aqsa mosque compound in Jerusalem on Tuesday, as itealsorevered by Jews, prompting fierce condemnation from the Palestinian sand several Arab countries.
- Al-Aqsa Mosque, located in the Old City of Jerusalem, is the third holiest site in Islam. The mosque was built on top of the Temple Mount, known as the Al Aqsa Compound or Haramesh-Sharif in Islam.
- Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to al-Aqsa during the Night Journey.
- Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the 16th or 17th month after his migration from Mecca to Medina, when Allah directed him to turn towards the Kaaba in Mecca.
How Jerusalem become a hotly contested territory?
- The city of Jerusalem is holy to Christians, Muslims and Jews.
- “The Temple Mount” in the city is the holiest site in Jewish religion and Jews from across the world come to pray Western Wall of the Biblical temple.
- “Al-Aqsa mosque”, which is Islam’s 3rd holiest site after Mecca and Medina is also located within the city.
- “Church of the Holy Sepulchre” in Jerusalem is thought to be the site of Jesus Christ’s Resurrection, thereby making it holy for Christians too.
- The Gaza Strip or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory.
- It is located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the east and north border.
- Gaza and the West Bank are claimed by the de jure sovereign State of Palestine. The territories of Gaza and the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory.
- Both fell under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but the strip has since the Battle of Gaza in June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian fundamentalist militant Islamic organization which came to power in the last-held elections in 2006.
- It has been placed under an Israeli and US-led international economic and political boycott from that time onwards.
Subject: International relations
Context: The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) ended 2022 by passing a resolution that asked the body’s highest court, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) , to render its opinion on the legal consequences of Israel’s prolonged occupation of Palestinian land. The resolution was passed with 87 member countries voting favourably, as opposed to 26 countries, including the U.S. and Israel, voting against it. India was one of the 53 countries that abstained from the vote
- The ICJ is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
- It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946.
- The court is the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), which was brought into being through, and by, the League of Nations.
- After World War II, the League of Nations and PCIJ were replaced by the United Nations and ICJ respectively.
- The PCIJ was formally dissolved in April 1946, and its last president, Judge José Gustavo Guerrero of El Salvador, became the first president of the ICJ.
Seat and role:
- The ICJ is based at the Peace Palace in The Hague.
- It is the only one of the six principal organs of the UN that is not located in New York City.
- (The other five organs are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, and the Secretariat.)
- All members of the UN are automatically parties to the ICJ statute, but this does not automatically give the ICJ jurisdiction over disputes involving them.
- The ICJ gets jurisdiction only if both parties consent to it.
- The judgment of the ICJ is final and technically binding on the parties to a case.
- There is no provision of appeal; it can at the most, be subject to interpretation or, upon the discovery of a new fact, revision.
- However, the ICJ has no way to ensure compliance of its orders, and its authority is derived from the willingness of countries to abide by them.
Judges of the court:
- The ICJ has 15 judges who are elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and Security Council, which vote simultaneously but separately.
- To be elected, a candidate must receive a majority of the votes in both bodies.
- A third of the court is elected every three years.
- The president and vice-president of the court are elected for three-year terms by secret ballot. Judges are eligible for re-election.
- Four Indians have been members of the ICJ so far.
- Justice Dalveer Bhandari, former judge of the Supreme Court, has been serving at the ICJ since 2012. Others being R S Pathak (1989-91), Nagendra Singh (1973-88), Sir Benegal Rau (1952-53).
India at the ICJ:
- India has been a party to a case at the ICJ on six occasions, four of which have involved Pakistan.
- They are:
- Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal v. India, culminated 1960);
- Appeal Relating to the Jurisdiction of the ICAO Council (India v. Pakistan, culminated 1972);
- Trial of Pakistani Prisoners of War (Pakistan v. India, culminated 1973);
- Aerial Incident of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India, culminated 2000);
- Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. India, culminated 2016); and
- (Kulbhushan) Jadhav (India v. Pakistan, culminated 2019).