Daily Prelims Notes 4 September 2021
- September 4, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
4 September 2021
Table Of Contents
- Edible Oil
- SC Collegium
- Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)
- Mu variant
- SC Judges Appointment
- Vanniyar movement in Tamil Nadu
- Forex Reserves
- Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC)
- Microbial Experiments in Outer Space
Subject – Geography / Environment
Context – Edible oil prices likely to ease by December: official
- India’s import bill of edible oils will top ₹1.20-lakh crore this year from ₹75,000 crore last year. According to SEA, the country has 3 lakh hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, producing around 2.80 lakh tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) a year.
- There is a potential to bring 1.9 million hectares of land. It had urged the government to target additional 5 lakh hectares in the next five years
- India currently depends on imports for nearly two thirds of edible oil used in the country. “Palm oil accounts for nearly 55 per cent of edible oil imported by India
National Edible Oil Mission – Oil Palm (NMEO-OP)
- This is a giant step for oil palm development in the country and towards ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ in edible oil
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday launched a ₹11,000 crore National Edible Oil Mission-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) to make India self-reliant in edible oils
- The NMEO proposal would aim to reduce import dependence from 60% to 45% by 2024-25, by increasing domestic edible oil production from 10.5 million tonnes to 18 million tonnes, a 70% growth target.
- It projected a 55% growth in oilseed production, to 47.8 million tonnes
- The government will ensure that farmers get all needed facilities, from quality seeds to technology. Along with promoting the cultivation of oil palm, this mission will also expand the cultivation of our other traditional oilseed crops
- The NMEO-OP’s predecessor was the National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm, which was launched at the end of the UPA government’s tenure and later merged with the National Food Security Mission.
- Laying out its achievements, oilseed production had grown 35% from 27.5 million tonnes in 2014-15 to 37.3 million tonnes by 2020-21. Although oilseed acreage rose only 8.6% over that six year period, yields rose more than 20%
- India is one of the major oilseeds grower and importer of edible oils. India’s vegetable oil economy is world’s fourth largest after USA, China & Brazil. The oilseed accounts for 13% of the Gross Cropped Area, 3% of the Gross National Product and 10% value of all agricultural commodities.
- The diverse agro-ecological conditions in the country are favourable for growing 9 annual oilseed crops, which include 7 edible oilseeds (groundnut, rapeseed & mustard, soybean, sunflower, sesame, safflower and niger) and two non-edible oilseeds (castor and linseed).
- Oilseeds cultivation is undertaken across the country in about 27 million hectares mainly on marginal lands, of which 72% is confined to rainfed farming.
- Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), Soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower.
- Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country.
- Major states Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujrat, Maharastra, UP
- The policy impetus to oilseed production in India came for the first time in 1986 when the government launched Technology Mission on Oilseed. This was a golden period for oilseed production in India when productivity jumped from 670 kg per hectare in the eighties to 835 kg per hectare in the nineties.
- To achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils production the government has launched several policy initiatives since the mid-1980s. They mainly include supply of high yielding oilseed cultivars, extension services and subsidised inputs; offering of minimum support prices (MSP); fixation of price band; import controls via canalisation; and promotion of oil palm cultivation.
- The outcome of these initiatives, known as “Yellow Revolution”, was highly encouraging. Between 1985 and 1994 the growth rate of area, production and yield of oilseeds increased significantly. As a result, the proportion of imported edible oils in total edible oil availability declined from 26.72 per cent in 1985 to 2.17 per cent in 1993, thereby making India almost self-sufficient in edible oil production
- Oilseed crops are the second most important determinant of the agricultural economy, next only to cereals within the segment of field crops.
Subject – Polity
Context – SC Collegium clears 68 names for HC judges.
- Collegium system was born through “three judges’ case” and it is in practice since 1998. It consists of the Chief Justice of India and four most senior judges of Supreme Court for appointment and transfer of judges and decides on the recommendations for persons to be appointed as SC and HC judges.
- The collegium recommends names to the Centre and the Centre also recommends name. The collegium after considering the names again sends the file to the government.
- If the Collegium resends the same name again then the government has to give its assent to the names. But time limit is not fixed to reply.
- Evolution and working of the collegium system in India
- It is based on the interpretation of the term “Consultation” as mentioned in the Art 124 and Art 217 of the Constitution, and evolved through three judges cases
- In the First Judges case (1982), the Court held that consultation does not mean concurrence and it only implies exchange of views.
- In the Second Judges case (1993), the Court reversed its earlier ruling and changed the meaning of the word consultation to concurrence.
- In the Third Judges case (1998), the Court opined that the consultation process to be adopted by the Chief Justice of India requires ‘consultation of plurality judges.
- The sole opinion of the CJI does not constitute the consultation process. He should consult a collegium of four senior most judges of the Supreme Court and even if two judges give an adverse opinion, he should not send the recommendation to the government.
- The court held that the recommendation made by the chief justice of India without complying with the norms and requirements of the consultation process are not binding on the government.
Subject – Environment
Context – Footprints of 3 dinosaur species found in Thar.
- In a major discovery, footprints of three species of dinosaurs have been found in the Thar desert in Rajasthan’s Jaisalmer district, proving the presence of the giant reptiles in the western part of the State, which formed the seashore to the Tethys Ocean during the Mesozoic era.
- The footprints, made in the sediment or silt of the seashore, later became permanently stone-like.
- They belong to three species of dinosaurs — Eubrontes cf. giganteus, Eubrontesglenrosensis and Grallator tenuis. While the giganteus and glenrosensis species have 35 cm footprints, the footprint of the third species was found to be 5.5 cm.
- Footprints were 200 million years old. They were found near Thaiat village.
- The dinosaur species are considered to be of the theropod type, with the distinguishing features of hollow bones and feet with three digits. All the three species, belonging to the early Jurassic period, were carnivorous.
- Eubrontes could have been 12 to 15 m long and weighed between 500 kg and 700 kg, while the height of the Grallator is estimated to have been 2 m, with a length of up to three metres.
Subject – Environment
Context – TN to set up 500-sq km Dugong reserve in Palk Bay.
- Dugong also called ‘Sea Cow’ is one of the four surviving species in the Order Sirenia and it is the only existing species of herbivorous mammal that lives exclusively in the sea including in India.
- They are listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and are protected in India under Schedule I of the Wild (Life) Protection Act, 1972.
- According to a 2013 survey report of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), there were only about 200 dugongs in the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat.
- Dugongs are an important part of the marine ecosystem and their depletion will have effects all the way up the food chain. Proper conservation is the only way to save dugongs from extinction.
- Human activities such as the destruction and modification of habitat, pollution, rampant illegal fishing activities, vessel strikes, unsustainable hunting or poaching and unplanned tourism are the main threats to dugongs.
- The loss of seagrass beds due to ocean floor trawling was the most important factor behind dwindling dugong populations in many parts of the world
- The dugong is the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific.
- It survives on seagrass that is found in the area.
Steps Taken for Conservation:
- In February 2020, India hosted the 13th Conference of Parties (CoP) of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- India has signed non-legally binding Memorandums of Understanding (MoU) with CMS on the conservation and management of Siberian Cranes (1998), Marine Turtles (2007), Dugongs (2008) and Raptors (2016).
- The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted a ‘Task Force for Conservation of Dugongs’ to look into issues related to conservation of dugongs and implementation of the ‘UNEP/CMS Dugong MoU’ in India. It also facilitates India to act as the leading nation in the South Asia Sub-region with respect to dugong conservation.
Subject – Polity
Context – Over 200 complaints before CVOs, 105 for more than three years: CVC
- The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is the main agency for preventing corruption in the Central government.
- It was established in 1964 by an executive resolution of the Central government. Its establishment was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–64).
- Thus, originally the CVC was neither a constitutional body nor a statutory body. Later, in 2003, the Parliament enacted a law conferring statutory status on the CVC.
- The CVC is conceived to be the apex vigilance institution, free of control from any executive authority, monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government and advising various authorities in Central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
- The CVC is a multi-member body consisting of a Central Vigilance Commissioner (chairperson) and not more than two vigilance commissioners.
- They are appointed by the president by warrant under his hand and seal on the recommendation of a three-member committee consisting of the prime minister as its head, the Union minister of home affairs and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
- They hold office for a term of four years or until they attain the age of sixty five years, whichever is earlier.
- After their tenure, they are not eligible for further employment under the Central or a state government.
- The president can remove the Central Vigilance Commissioner or any vigilance commissioner from the office under the following circumstances:
- (a) If he is adjudged an insolvent; or
- (b) If he has been convicted of an offence which (in the opinion of the Central government) involves a moral turpitude; or
- (c) If he engages, during his term of office, in any paid employment outside the duties of his office; or
- (d) If he is (in the opinion of the president), unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body; or
- (e) If he has acquired such financial or other interest as is likely to affect prejudicially his official functions.
- The CVC has its own Secretariat, Chief Technical Examiners’ Wing (CTE) and a wing of Commissioners for Departmental Inquiries (CDIs).
- Secretariat: The Secretariat consists of a Secretary, Joint Secretaries, Deputy Secretaries, Under Secretaries and office staff.
- Chief Technical Examiners’ Wing: The Chief Technical Examiners’ Organization constitutes the technical wing of the CVC. It consists of Chief Engineers (designated as Chief Technical Examiners) and supporting engineering staff.
- Commissioners for Departmental Inquiries: The CDIs function as Inquiry Officers to conduct oral inquiries in departmental proceedings initiated against public servants.
The jurisdiction of the CVC extends to the following:
- Members of All India Services serving in connection with the affairs ofthe Union and Group A officers of the Central Government.
- Officers of the rank of Scale V and above in the Public Sector Banks.
- Officers in Grade D and above in Reserve Bank of India, NABARD andSIDBI.
- Chief Executives and Executives on the Board and other officers of E-8and above in Schedule ‘A’ and ‘B’ Public Sector Undertakings.
- Chief Executives and Executives on the Board and other officers of E-7and above in Schedule ‘C’ and ‘D’ Public Sector Undertakings.
- Managers and above in General Insurance Companies.
- Senior Divisional Managers and above in Life Insurance Corporation.
- Officers drawing salary of `8700/- per month (pre-revised) and above on Central Government D.A. pattern, as may be revised from time to time, in societies and local authorities owned or controlled by the Central Government.
Who are the Chief Vigilance Officers?
The Chief Vigilance Officers are extended hands of the CVC. The Chief Vigilance Officers are considerably higher level officers who are appointed in each and every Department/Organization to assist the Head of the Department/Organization in all vigilance matters.
What are the selection and appointment procedures for the Chief Vigilance Officers?
Selection and Appointment
The Chief Vigilance Officers constitute an important link between the organizations concerned and the Central Vigilance Commission (as also the CBI). The following procedures have been laid down/evolved in the matter of appointment of CVOs:
- Prior approval of the Commission for appointment of an officer as CVO;
- As far as possible, the Chief Vigilance Officers should be from outside the Organization in which he is to be appointed. The initial tenure of full-time CVO in PSUs is for three years extendable by two years in the same organization with the approval of the Commission or up to a further period of three years on transfer to another PSU on completion of initial tenure of three years in the previous PSU.
- In cases where the scale of operation of a particular organization does not justify creation of a full-time post, an officer within the organization sufficiently senior in rank to be able to report directly to the Chief Executive or vigilance matters may be considered for such appointments.
- The officer to be given additional charge of the post of CVO should not be one whose normal duties involve dealing with matters sensitive from vigilance point of view (like recruitment, purchase, etc.).
- Once an officer has worked as CVO in an organization, he should not go back as CVO to the same organization again.
- An officer who is appointed from outside as CVO in Central Public Undertaking shall not be permanently absorbed in the same organization on expiry or in continuation of his tenure as CVO in that organization.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – This week the World Health Organization named a new ‘variant of interest’ of the coronavirus, called the Mu variant. It was first found in Colombia in January 2021, and has been found in about 39 countries so far.
- Some mutations will be detrimental to the virus, but some will be beneficial, allowing it to spread better, escape the protection offered by vaccines or even evade COVID tests.
- If there are changes to the virus that mean it looks like it has the potential to do more harm, then we might designate it a ‘variant of interest’.
- Mu has mutations that might confer some of these properties, but evidence is still emerging.
- The four other variants of interest are Eta, Iota, Kappa and Lambda.
- If there’s good evidence Mu is more serious and beginning to overtake other variants such as Delta, it might be upgraded to a ‘variant of concern’. The four variants of concern are Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta.
Subject – Polity
Context – Nine judges of the Supreme Court took oath on Tuesday, the biggest ever number at one go. A third of the new judges are women, another first, even though the 33-strong Bench still has only four women.
- Articles 124(2) and 217 of the Constitution govern the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court and High Courts respectively. Under both provisions, the President has the power to make the appointments “after consultation with such of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary”.
- Over the years, the word “consultation” has been at the center of debate on the executive’s power to appoint judges. In practice, the executive held this power since Independence, and a convention of seniority was evolved for appointing the Chief Justice of India.
- This changed, however, in the ’80s in a series of Supreme Court cases, in which the judiciary essentially impounded the power of appointment to itself.
What were these cases?
- The tussle between the executive and the judiciary over judges’ appointment began following the Indira Gandhi-led government’s move in 1973 to supersede three senior judges and appoint Justice A N Ray as the CJI.
- In three cases — which came to be known as the Judges Cases — in 1981, 1993 and 1998, the Supreme Court evolved the collegium system for appointing judges. A group of senior Supreme Court judges headed by the CJI would make recommendations to the President on who should be appointed. These rulings not only shrank the executive say in proposing a candidate for judgeship, but also took away the executive’s veto power.
- In the First Judges Case — S P Gupta v Union of India (1981) — the Supreme Court ruled that the President does not require the “concurrence” of the CJI in appointment of judges. The ruling affirmed the pre-eminence of the executive in making appointments, but was overturned 12 years later in the Second Judges Case.
- In the Supreme Court Advocates-on-Record Association v Union of India (1993), a nine-judge Constitution Bench evolved the ‘collegium system’ for appointment and transfer of judges in the higher judiciary. The court underlined that the deviation from the text of the Constitution was to guard the independence of the judiciary from the executive and protect its integrity.
- In 1998, President K R Narayanan issued a Presidential Reference to the Supreme Court over the meaning of the term “consultation” — whether it required “consultation” with a number of judges in forming the CJI’s opinion, or whether the CJI’s sole opinion could by itself constitute a “consultation”. The ruling on this established a quorum and majority vote in the collegium to make recommendations to the President.
- In 2014, the NDA government attempted to claw back control on judicial appointments by establishing the National Judicial Appointments Commission through constitutional amendments. Although the law, which gave the executive a greater foot in the door in appointments, had support across political parties, the Supreme Court struck it down as unconstitutional.
How many judges does the Supreme Court have? How is the number decided?
- Currently, the Supreme Court has 34 judges including the CJI. In 1950, when it was established, it had 8 judges including the CJI. Parliament, which has the power to increase the number of judges, has gradually done so by amending the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act — from 8 in 1950 to 11 in 1956, 14 in 1960, 18 in 1978, 26 in 1986, 31 in 2009, and 34 in 2019.
- Even with Tuesday’s record nine appointments, the court continues to have one vacancy, and eight more judges are due to retire next year.
How did this backlog accumulate?
- In 2019, the Supreme Court was functioning at its full strength of 34. When CJI S A Bobde took over, he inherited just one vacancy, that of his predecessor Ranjan Gogoi. However, the collegium headed by CJI Bobde could not reach a consensus in recommending names, leading to an impasse that led to accumulation of vacancies, of which now only one remains (until the retirements next year).
- The High Courts on average have over a 30% vacancy. The age of retirement is 65 years for SC judges and 62 for HC judges — unlike in, say, the United States where Supreme Court judges serve for life. Thus means that in India, the process of appointing judges is a continuous one and the collegium system is multi-step process with little accountability on even the timelines that the judiciary has set for itself.
- For High Court appointments, the process is initiated by the HC collegium and the file then moves to the state government, the central government and then to the SC collegium after intelligence reports are gathered on the candidates recommended. This process often takes over a year. Once the SC collegium clears the names, a delay also happens at the government level for final approval and appointment. If the government wants the collegium to reconsider a recommendation, the file is sent back and the collegium can reiterate or withdraw its decision.
Has the number of women judges always been low?
- Lack of representation in terms of caste and gender has been an issue in the higher judiciary.
- Before Tuesday’s appointments, Justice Indira Banerjee was the only woman judge in the Supreme Court. Justice B V Nagarathna is in line to become India’s first woman CJI —80 years after Independence.
- In 1989, justice Fathima Beevi became the first judge to be appointed to the Supreme Court. Since then, however, the SC has had only 11 women judges, inducing the three women appointed recently.
- A 2018 study by Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy noted that while representation of women in the lower judiciary is higher at 27%, they hit a glass ceiling in higher appointments — as district judges and subsequently at the high court level.
Context – With local body polls round the corner, the DMK government in Tamil Nadu has announced the construction of a memorial in Villupuram to people killed in police firing and clashes in 1987, during a movement demanding reservation for the Vanniyar community.
- Vanniyars are one of the largest and most consolidated backward communities in the state. They had raised massive protests in the mid-1980s demanding 20% reservation in the state, and 2% in central services.
- Their movement was backed by the Justice Party as well as the Self-Respect Movement. Organised protests began with the formation of Vanniyar Sangam, headed by S Ramadoss, a medical practitioner who later founded the political party PMK.
- The agitation began in 1986 with activists sending hundreds of letters and telegrams to then Chief Minister M G Ramachandran seeking an audience. As there was no response from MGR and the then Rajiv Gandhi government, agitators started demonstrations in community strongholds, then went on to blockading rail and road traffic.
- The blockades were effective because community members in each village would block busy highway stretches on their village borders. They would cut revenue trees on either side of the state highway.
- One blockade in May 1986 brought traffic in the entire state to a halt, and thousands were arrested. A one-day blockade of trains followed in December 1986. The peak was in September 1987, when road traffic in northern Tamil Nadu came to a halt for an entire week.
The 1987 deaths
- The Vanniyars declared an agitation from September 17 to 23, 1987, which turned violent. At least 21 protesters were killed, mostly in police firing, and also in clashes with members of Scheduled Caste communities.
- While this shook the state establishment, there was no immediate solution. MGR died three months later, in December 1987.
- After the DMK government of M Karunanidhi came to power in 1989, the OBC quota was split into two: Backward Castes and Most Backward Castes. Vanniyars were categorised among the MBCs with 107 other communities, with 20% reservation.
- Three decades later, the then AIADMK government passed a Bill, and the current DMK government has implemented it with a Government Order ensuring 10.5% reservation for Vanniyars within the 20% MBC quota.
Subject – Economy
Context – IMF’s asset allocation a booster shot, forex reserves jump by record $16.6 bn
- Foreign exchange reserves are assets held on reserve by a central bank in foreign currencies, which can include bonds, treasury bills and other government securities.
- It needs to be noted that most foreign exchange reserves are held in US dollars.
- These assets serve many purposes but are most significantly held to ensure that the central bank has backup funds if the national currency rapidly devalues or becomes altogether insolvent.
India’s Forex Reserve include:
- Foreign Currency Assets
- Gold reserves
- Special Drawing Rights
- Reserve position with the IMF
Foreign Currency Assets:
- FCAs are assets that are valued based on a currency other than the country’s own currency.
- FCA is the largest component of the forex reserve. It is expressed in dollar terms.
- The FCAs include the effect of appreciation or depreciation of non-US unitslike the euro, pound and yen held in the foreign exchange reserves.
- Gold occupies a special position in the foreign reserves of central banks as it is widely stated to beheld for reasons of diversification.
- Moreover, the unique property of gold is believed to be its ability to enhance the credibility of the central bank when it holds adequately and this has been proved time and again.
Special Drawing Rights:
- The SDR is an international reserve asset, created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1969to supplement its member countries’ official reserves.
- The SDR is neither a currency nor a claim on the IMF. Rather, it is a potential claim on the freely usable currencies of IMF members. SDRs can be exchanged for these currencies.
- The value of the SDR is calculated from a weighted basket of major currencies, including the US dollar, the euro, Japanese yen, Chinese yuan, and British pound.
- The interest rate on SDRs or (SDRi) is the interest paid to members on their SDR holdings.
Reserve Position in the International Monetary Fund:
- A reserve tranche position implies a portion of the required quota of currency each member country must provide to the IMF that can be utilized for its own purposes.
- The reserve tranche is basically an emergency account that IMF members can access at any time without agreeing to conditions or paying a service fee.
Subject – Economy
Context – The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) on Friday discussed measures to manage stressed assets and noted the need to keep a continuous vigil by the government and all regulators on the financial conditions.
- The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) is a non-statutory apex council under the Ministry of Finance constituted by the Executive Order in 2010.
- The Raghuram Rajan committee (2008) on financial sector reforms first proposed the creation of FSDC.
- It is chaired by the Finance Minister and its members include the heads of all Financial Sector Regulators (RBI, SEBI, PFRDA& IRDA), Finance Secretary, Secretary of Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), Secretary of Department of Financial Services (DFS), and Chief Economic Adviser.
- In 2018, the government reconstituted FSDC to include the Minister of State responsible for the Department of Economic Affairs (DEA), Secretary of Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Chairperson of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) and the Revenue Secretary.
- FSDC sub-committee is headed by the Governor of RBI.
- The Council can invite experts to its meeting if required.
- The objective of FSDC is to strengthen and institutionalize the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination and promoting financial sector development.
- It also intends to monitor macro-prudential supervision of the economy. It will assess the functioning of the large financial conglomerates.
Responsibilities of FSDC
- Bringing about stability in the financial sector
- Development of the Financial Sector
- Coordination of Inter-Regulatory bodies
- Promoting financial literacy
- Ensuring financial inclusion
- Macroprudential supervision of the economy including the functioning of large financial conglomerates.
- Coordinating India’s international interface with financial sector bodies like the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Financial Stability Board (FSB) and any such body as may be decided by the Finance Minister from time to time.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – New device to conduct microbial experiments in outer space.
- The device, developed by ISRO and IISc., uses an LED and photodiode sensor combination to track bacterial growth.
- This could enable scientists to carry out biological experiments in outer space.
- In a paper published in the peer reviewed journal ActaAstronautica, the team showed how the device can activate and track the growth of bacterium ‘Sporosarcinapasteurii’ over several days, with minimal human involvement
Subject – Environment
Context – Kokkrebellur pelicans to be geo tagged.
- Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae. They are characterized by a long beak and a large throat pouch used for catching prey and draining water from the scooped-up contents before swallowing.
- They have predominantly pale plumage, except for the brown and Peruvian pelicans. The bills, pouches, and bare facial skin of all pelicans become brightly coloured before the breeding season.
- The eight living pelican species have a patchy global distribution, ranging latitudinally from the tropics to the temperate zone, though they are absent from interior South America and from polar regions and the open ocean.
- The Grey Pelican also called the Spot Billed Pelican is listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act and in the Red Data Book. It is also considered a “globally threatened species” under the “vulnerable” category.
- The Kollerulake is known to amateur birdwatchers and professional ornithologists as a Pelicanery — a location were the Grey Pelicans, a large magnificent bird, nest and breed. Grey pelicans had vanished from the lake in 1973 for nearly 35 years and returned to it to nest again in December 2006.