Daily Prelims Notes 5 March 2022
- March 5, 2022
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
5 March 2022
Table Of Contents
- SRI AUROBINDO
- GENERAL CONSENT FOR CBI
- Russia and Ukraine: The nuclear questions
- NO FLY ZONE
- India abstains again in UN vote
- India’s energy mix needs a LNG boost
Context- The government is committed to expanding Auroville into a ‘city’ in line with the existing Master Plan, amidst reaffirmed support to the experimental township during the first Auroville Festival to mark the 150th birth anniversary year of Sri Aurobindo.
About Sri Aurobindo:
- AurobindoGhose was born in Calcutta on 15th August 1872.
- He was a yogi, seer, philosopher, poet, and Indian nationalist who propounded a philosophy of divine life on earth through spiritual evolution.
- He died on 5th December 1950 in Pondicherry.
Indian Revolutionary Movement:
- From 1902 to 1910 he partook in the struggle to free India from the British. As a result of his political activities, he was imprisoned in 1908 (AliporeBomb case).
- Two years later he fled British India and found refuge in the French colony of Pondichéry.
Religion & Spirituality:
- At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo developed a spiritual practice he called Integral Yoga.
- In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, MirraAlfassa (referred to as “The Mother”), Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded.
- He believed that the basic principles of matter, life, and mind would be succeeded through terrestrial evolution by the principle of supermind as an intermediate power between the two spheres of the infinite and the finite.
- An English newspaper called BandeMataram (in 1905).
- The Life Divine
- Synthesis of Yoga
- Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol
- Bhagavad Gita and Its Message
- The Future Evolution of Man
- Rebirth and Karma
- Hour of God
Context- Nine states including Meghalaya have withdrawn general consent to the CBI, which means the agency must seek the permission of the state govt before it can open a fresh case in the state.
What is general consent?
- The CBI is governed by The Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, 1946, and it must mandatorily obtain the consent of the state government concerned before beginning to investigate a crime in a state under Section 6 of The DSPE Act.
- The CBI’s position is in this respect different from that of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), which is governed by The NIA Act, 2008, and has jurisdiction across the country.
- The consent of the state government to CBI can be either case-specific or general.
- General consent is normally given by states to help the CBI in seamless investigation of cases of corruption against central government employees in their states. This is consent by default, in the absence of which the CBI would have to apply to the state government in every case, and before taking even small actions.
- CBI can suo-moto take up investigation of offences only in the Union Territories.
Which states have withdrawn consent, and why?
- Traditionally, almost all states have given CBI general consent. However, since 2015 onward, several states have begun to act differently.
- Nine states that have withdrawn consent to the CBI:
- West Bengal,
- Kerala, and
What does the withdrawal of general consent mean?
- It means the CBI will not be able to register any fresh case involving officials of the central government or a private person in the state without the consent of the state government.
- CBI officers will lose all powers of a police officer as soon as they enter the state unless the state government has allowed them.
- In Vinay Mishra vs the CBI, the Calcutta HC ruled that withdrawal of consent would apply in cases where exclusively employees of the state government were involved.
- Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police agency in India.
- In 1963, the CBI was established by the Government of India with a view to investigate serious crimes related to defence of India, corruption in high places, serious fraud, cheating and embezzlement and social crime, particularly of hoarding, black-marketing and profiteering in essential commodities, having all-India and inter-state ramifications.
- CBI derives power to investigate from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946.
- It functions under the superintendence of the Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances, Government of India, which falls under the prime minister’s office.
- However for investigations of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, its superintendence vests with the Central Vigilance Commission.
- It is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
TOPIC: Defence & Security
Context- Russia has justifies its invasion of Ukraine on grounds of the alleged nuclear threat from its smaller neighbour to the West. With the Russian army now sitting in its territory, Ukrainians are wondering if de-nuclearising was a mistake.
- The Russia-Ukraine war could potentially trigger a nuclear disaster, threatening to expose the inhabitants and the environment to radioactive materials.
- A fire broke out March 4, 2022 at Europe’s largest nuclear power plant in Zaphorizhzhia in Ukraine, following shelling by Russian forces.
About Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances 1994:
- The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances comprises three identical political agreements signed at the OSCE conference in Budapest, Hungary on 5 December 1994to provide security assurances by its signatories relating to the accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).
- The memorandum was originally signed by three nuclear powers: the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- The memorandum included security assurances against threats or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.
- As a result of the memorandum, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine gave up their nuclear weapons.
- Until Ukraine gave up its nuclear weapons, it had the world’s third-largest nuclear weapons stockpile consisting of some 1,900 strategic nuclear warheads.
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- Kavach, the Indian technology that can prevent two trains from colliding.
What is Kavach?
- It is India’s very own automatic protection system in development since 2012, under the name Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).
- The technology uses micro processors, global positioning system and radio communication.
- It is a set of electronic devices and Radio Frequency Identification devices installed in locomotives, in the signalling system as well the tracks, that talk to each other using ultra high radio frequencies to control the brakes of trains and also alert drivers, all based on the logic programmed into them.
- It is able to send out triggers when a loco pilot jumps signal, called Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD), making it useful for loco pilots in low visibility, especially during dense fog.
- TCAS or Kavach includes the key elements from systems like the European Train Protection and Warning System, and the indigenous Anti Collision Device.
- Once rolled out, it may be world’s cheapest Automatic Train Protection System
- So far, Kavach has been deployed on over 1,098 km and 65 locomotives in ongoing projects of the South Central Railway. In future it will be implemented on 3000 km of the Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Howrah corridors.
Context- The closure of Russian airspace for US-based, Canadian and European airlines has meant flights between some major destinations in these jurisdictions and India have become longer.
- Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
- It is not the same as aerospace, which is the general term for Earth’s atmosphere and the outer space in its vicinity.
- Airspace may be further subdivided into a variety of areas and zones, including those where there are either restrictions on flying activities or complete prohibition of flying activities.
International laws on airspace:
- By international law, a state “has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory”, which corresponds with the maritime definition of territorial waters as being 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) out from a nation’s coastline.
- Airspace not within any country’s territorial limit is considered international, analogous to the “high seas” in maritime law.
- International Airspaces are governed under the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for operational control.
- There is no international agreement on the vertical extent of sovereign airspace.
Context- Russia’s attack on Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant has renewed calls for NATO to impose a no-fly zone over Ukraine.
What is a no-fly zone?
- A no-fly zone would bar all unauthorized aircraft from flying over Ukraine.
- Western nations imposed such restrictions over parts of Iraq for more than a decade following the 1991 Gulf War, during the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1993-95, and during the Libyan civil war in 2011.
What would a no-fly zone achieve?
- A no-fly zone would protect civilians — and now nuclear power stations — from Russian air strikes.
- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance among 28 European countries and 2 North American countries.
- Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed 4 April 1949.
- NATO constitutes a system of collective security, whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
- The NATO headquarters is located in Brussels, Belgium.
TOPIC: Defence & Security
Context- India abstains from vote to probe actions of Russia at at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.
- The IAEA vote was particularly signiﬁcant as it related to safety at four nuclear power stations and a number of nuclear waste sites including Chernobyl, as the Russians seized control of them.
About International Atomic Energy Agency:
- Established as the world’s “Atoms for Peace and Development” organization within the United Nations.
- The IAEA is the international centre for cooperation in the nuclear field.
- The IAEA was created in 1957 in response to the fears generated by the discoveries and diverse uses of nuclear technology.
- Its Headquarter is in Vienna, Austria.
- The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.
- In 2005, it was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their work for a safe and peaceful world.
- It is an independent international organization that reports annually to the United Nation General Assembly.
- The IAEA also reports to the UN Security Council in regards to instances of members’ non-compliance with safeguards and security obligations.
Context- India on Friday abstained on a vote at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva as the Council decided to set up an international commission of enquiry into Russia’s actions in Ukraine.
- India was among 13 countries of the 47-member council elected from UN members that abstained from the resolution, along with China, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Sudan, Uzbekistan and Venezuela.
About UN Human Rights Council:
- The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the world.
- The Council was created by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006. It replaced the former United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
- The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the Secretariat of the Human Rights Council.
- OHCHR is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
- It consists of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly (UNGA).
- Geographical Distribution of Seats are as follows:
- African States: 13 seats
- Asia-Pacific States: 13 seats
- Latin American and Caribbean States: 8 seats
- Western European and other States: 7 seats
- Eastern European States: 6 seats
- Members of the Council serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.
- India was elected to the Council for a period of three years beginning 1st January 2019.
Context- Prime Minister Narendra Modi, addressing a webinar on ‘Energy for Sustainable Growth’, said that sustainable growth is possible only through sustainable energy sources.
- The government maintains that the MoPNG works in collaboration with various other Central Ministries/State governments/stakeholders to reduce import dependency on oil.
- According to the Ministry for Petroleum and Natural Gas, the share of natural gas in the primary energy mix is envisaged to increase to 15 per cent by 2030 by boosting domestic production.
- LNG imports are under the Open General Licence category and
- Establishment of LNG infrastructure, including terminals, is also under 100 per cent FDI (automatic route).
- Also, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has notiﬁed LNG as a transport fuel.
- The government has been driving the initiative of setting up LNG stations across the Golden Quadrilateral, national highways, east-west highway, north-south highway and major mining clusters.
- Cross-country pipeline: At present there are no cross- country LNG pipelines.
- The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB), under the PNGRB Act, 2006, has notiﬁed Technical and Safety Regulations for Natural Gas Pipelines in line with various national/international standards.
- Storage of natural gas is presently not being done by the government,
- Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserve Ltd (ISPRL), a government of India company, has established crude oil storage facilities at three locations — Vishakhapatnam , Mangaluru and Padur (2.5 MMT) under Phase I of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR) programme.
- Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for storage or transport.
- LNG is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive.
- LNG is frozen at about -260° Fahrenheit in order to turn it into liquid form, whereas CNG is pressurized to the point where it is very compact.
- LNG takes up less storage space on a vehicle than CNG, and it also offers an energy density that can be compared to diesel fuel.
- The volume of natural gas in its liquid state is about 600 times smaller than its volume in its gaseous state in a natural gas pipeline.