Daily Prelims Notes 6 December 2021
- December 6, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
6 December 2021
Table Of Contents
- Statutory Bail
- Raigad Fort
- Assam Rifles
- The Climate Action Tracker
- Self Help Group – Bank Linkage Programme (SHG-BLP)
- Hornbill Festival
- Total Solar Eclipse
- Konyak tribe
- Sequester CO2 and produce Natural Gas
- Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA)
- Delhi Police Model
- Chaitya Bhoomi
- Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and Surrogacy
Subject – Governance
Context -The National Investigation Agency (NIA) has approached the Supreme Court against a Bombay High Court order granting bail to advocate and activist Sudha Bharadwaj.
- Also known as statutory bail, this is a right to bail that accrues when the police fail to complete investigation within a specified period in respect of a person in judicial custody.
- This is enshrined in Section 167(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure where it is not possible for the police to complete an investigation in 24 hours, the police produce the suspect in court and seek orders for either police or judicial custody.
- This section concerns the total period up to which a person may be remanded in custody prior to filing of charge sheet.
- For most offences, the police have 60 days to complete the investigation and file a final report before the court.
- However, where the offence attracts death sentence or life imprisonment, or a jail term of not less than 10 years, the period available is 90 days.
- In other words, a magistrate cannot authorise a person’s judicial remand beyond the 60or 90-day limit.
- At the end of this period, if the investigation is not complete, the court shall release the person “if he is prepared to and does furnish bail”.
How does the provision vary for special laws?
- The 60 or 90-day limit is only for ordinary penal law.
- Special enactments allow greater latitude to the police for completing the probe.
- In the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, the period is 180 days.
- However, in cases involving substances in commercial quantity, the period may be extended up to one year.
- This extension beyond 180 days can be granted only on a report by the Public Prosecutor indicating the progress made in the investigation and giving reasons to keep the accused in continued detention.
- In the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, the default limit is 90 days only. The court may grant an extension of another 90 days, if it is satisfied with a report by the Public Prosecutor showing the progress made in the investigation and giving reasons to keep the accused in further custody.
- These provisions show that the extension of time is not automatic but requires a judicial order.
What are the laid-down principles on this aspect?
- Default or statutory bail is a right, regardless of the nature of the crime.
- The stipulated period within which the charge sheet has to be filed begins from the day the accused is remanded for the first time. It includes days undergone in both police and judicial custody, but not days spent in house-arrest.
- A requirement for the grant of statutory bail is that the right should be claimed by the person in custody.
- If the charge sheet is not filed within the stipulated period, but there is no application for bail under Section 167(2), there is no automatic bail.
- In general, the right to bail on the investigation agency’s default is considered an ‘indefeasible right’, but it should be availed of at the appropriate time.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – President Ram Nath Kovind is beginning his four-day visit (December 6-9) to Maharashtra on Monday by visiting the Raigad Fort where he will pay tribute to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
- Raigad is a hill fort situated about 25 km from Mahad in the Raigad district and stands 2,851 feet above the sea level.
- The British Gazette states the fort was known to early Europeans as the Gibraltar of the East.
- Its decisive feature is a mile and a half flat top which has adequate room for buildings.
When was it built?
- The fort, which was earlier called Rairi, was the seat of the Maratha clan Shirke in the 12th century.
- The fort changed hands a number of times from the dynasty of Bahaminis to the Nizamshahis and then the Adilshahis.
- In 1956, Chhatrapati Shivaji captured it from the More’s of Javli who were under the suzerainty of the Adilshahi Sultanate.
- The fort not only helped Shivaji challenge the supremacy of the Adilshahi dynasty but also opened up the routes towards Konkan for the extension of his power.
Significance of the fort in Shivaji’s life
- In 1662, Shivaji formally changed the fort’s name to Raigad and added a number of structures to it.
- By 1664, the fort had emerged as the seat of Shivaji’s government.
- As the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji gained strength in their struggle against the Mughals, the announcement of a sovereign, independent state was made.
- Chhatrapati Shivaji is the tallest and the most revered icon in Maharashtra.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – Killing of over a dozen civilians in Mon district of Nagaland on Saturday saw angry crowds vandalise camps of Assam Rifles in the district.
- Assam Rifles is one of the six central armed police forces (CAPFs) under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
- The other forces being the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), the Border Security Force (BSF), the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), the Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB).
- It is tasked with the maintenance of law and order in the North East along with the Indian Army and also guards the Indo-Myanmar border in the region.
- It has a sanctioned strength of over 63,000 personnel and has 46 battalions apart from administrative and training staff.
How is it unique?
- It is the only paramilitary force with a dual control structure.
- While the administrative control of the force is with the MHA, its operational control is with the Indian Army, which is under the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
- This means that salaries and infrastructure for the force is provided by the MHA, but the deployment, posting, transfer and deputation of the personnel is decided by the Army.
- All its senior ranks, from DG to IG and sector headquarters are manned by officers from the Army.
- The force is commanded by Lieutenant General from the Indian Army.
- The force is the only central paramilitary force (CPMF) in real sense as its operational duties and regimentation are on the lines of the Indian Army.
- However, being a Central Armed Police force under MHA, its recruitment, perks, promotion of its personnel and retirement policies are governed according to the rules framed by the MHA for CAPFs.
Difference in Army personnel and CAPF
- Army personnel retire early, at 35, while the retirement age in CAPF is 60 years.
- CAPF officers have recently been granted non-functional financial upgradation (NFFU) to at least financially address the issue of stagnation in their careers due to lack of avenues for promotion.
- But Army personnel also get one rank one pension which is not available to CAPFs.
Contribution of Assam Rifles
- Assam Rifles is the oldest paramilitary force raised way back in 1835 in British India with just 750 men.
- Since then, it has gone on to fight in two World Wars, the Sino-Indian war of 1962 and used as an anti-insurgency force against militant groups in the North East.
- Raised as a militia to protect British tea estates and its settlements from the raids of the NE tribes, the force was first known as Cachar Levy.
- It was reorganised later as Assam Frontier Force as its role was expanded to conduct punitive operations beyond Assam borders.
- Given its contribution in opening the region to administration and commerce, it came to be known as the “right arm of the civil and left arm of the military”.
- The Post-Independence role of the Assam Rifles continued to evolve ranging from conventional combat role during Sino-India War 1962, operating in foreign land as part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) to Sri Lanka in 1987 (Op Pawan) to peacekeeping role in the North-Eastern areas of India.
- It remains the most awarded paramilitary force in both pre- and post-independent India.
Correction from DPN of 8th September 2021 – Assam Rifles is one of the six central armed police forces (CAPFs).
Subject – Environment
Context – COP 26 and climate change
- The Climate Action Tracker is an independent scientific analysis that tracks government climate action and measures it against the globally agreed Paris Agreement aim of “holding warming well below 2°C, and pursuing efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C.”
- A collaboration of two organisations, Climate Analytics and NewClimate Institute, the CAT has been providing this independent analysis to policymakers since 2009.
- CAT quantifies and evaluates climate change mitigation targets, policies and action.
- It also aggregates country action to the global level, determining likely temperature increases during the 21st century using the MAGICC climate model.
- CAT further develops sectoral analysis to illustrate required pathways for meeting the global temperature goals.
- The Climate Action Tracker is made possible due to generous support from foundations and governments, including the European Climate Foundation (aviation, shipping, Thailand, Iran, Nigeria, Colombia, Germany, UK, Vietnam, Kenya, governments reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic and climate governance) and the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) via the International Climate Initiative (other elements).
Subject – Economy
Context – 30 years of SHG -BLP
- NABARD, through its’ Micro Credit Innovations Department has continued its role as the facilitator and mentor of microfinance initiatives in the country.
- The model of ‘SHG-BLP’ has evolved as a cost-effective mechanism for providing financial services to the unreached and underserved poor households.
- What started as a pilot to link around 500 SHGs of poor to the formal financial institutions during the year 1992-93 has now become the largest microfinance programme in the world, in terms of the client base and outreach.
- The SHGs which follow ‘Panchsutras’ viz.
- conduct of regular group meetings,
- regular savings within the group,
- internal lending based on the demand of members,
- timely repayment of loan and
- maintenance of proper books of accounts – considered to be of good quality and over years have proved themselves to be good customers of Banks.
- The NGO sector has played a prominent role of working as a Self Help Group Promoting Institution (SHPI) by organizing, nurturing and enabling credit linkage of SHGs with banks.
- NABARD later co-opted many others as SHPIs including the rural financial institutions (RRBs, DCCBs, PACS), Farmers’ Clubs (FCs), SHG Federations, Individual Rural Volunteers (IRVs) etc.
- These stakeholders were encouraged to take up promotion of SHGs by way of promotional grant assistance from NABARD.
- This savings led microfinance model has now become the largest coordinated financial inclusion programme in the world covering almost 100 million households in the country.
- With more than 84% of the groups being exclusively women groups, the programme has provided the much needed push to empowerment of women in the country.
- Banks are also provided 100% refinance support by NABARD for financing of SHGs.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – Nagaland civilian deaths cast shadow on Hornbill Festival
- Nagaland is known as the land of festivals as each tribe celebrates its own festival with dedication and passion.
- To encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote cultural heritage of Nagaland, the Government of Nagaland organizes the Hornbill Festival every year in the first week of December. It is also called the ‘Festival of Festivals”.
- Organized by the State Tourism and Art & Culture Departments, Hornbill Festival showcases a mélange of cultural displays under one roof.
- This festival usually takes place between the 1st and the 10th of December every year in Kohima.
- All the tribes of Nagaland take part in this festival.
- The festival is named after the bird – Hornbill which is the most revered and admired bird for the Nagas.
- The festival is a tribute to this bird, known for its qualities of grandeur and alertness.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Total solar eclipse will bring 2 minutes of darkness to Antarctica’s months of endless daylight
- Eclipses are divided into two major types: Solar and Lunar.
- Solar eclipses occur when the Sun, Moon and earth all fall in the same line so that the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, leaving a moving region of shadow on Earth’s surface.
- Lunar eclipses occur when the Sun, Moon and earth all fall in the same line and Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon.
Subject – Governance
Context – At the centre of the violence which followed the killing of six civilians in Oting village of Mon district in Nagaland on Saturday evening, and which led to the killing of eight more civilians, are the Konyaks – among the largest tribes in the state.
- With a population of roughly 3 lakh, the area inhabited by the Konyaks extends into Arunachal Pradesh, with a sizeable population in Myanmar as well.
- Known to be one of the fiercest warrior tribes in Nagaland, the Konyaks were the last to give up the practice of head-hunting – severing heads of enemies after attacking rival tribes – as late as the 1980s.
- The Konyaks are one of the major Naga ethnic groups.
- In Nagaland, they inhabit the Mon District—also known as ‘The Land of The Anghs’.
- The Anghs/Wangs are their traditional chiefs whom they hold in high esteem. Facial tattoos were earned for taking an enemy’s head.
- Other unique traditional practices that set the Konyaks apart are: gunsmithing, iron-smelting, brass-works, and gunpowder-making.
- They are also adept in making ‘janglaü’ (machetes) and wooden sculptures.
Subject – Environment
Context – IIT-Madras professor finds a way to tackle climate change while, at the same time, secure our energy requirement
- The professor has shown it is possible to first separate carbon dioxide, in an almost pure form, from the flue gases of industries, particularly coal-fired thermal plants.
- The next step is to inject the carbon dioxide into the gas hydrate zones, whereupon the carbon dioxide molecules push out the resident methane molecules and take their place. The methane can be tapped off.
- Hydrates are a mixture of water and a gas, defined as “a solid, ice-like form of water that contains gas molecules in its molecular cavities”.
- For separating carbon dioxide from flue gases— cool it to 1.5 degrees Centigrade and pressurise it to 30 bars, and let it react with water. Carbon dioxide will separate out to form carbon dioxide hydrates.
- Next, if you depressurise the chamber, (nearly) pure carbon dioxide will separate from the hydrates.
- India has mind-boggling amounts of natural gas in the form of hydrates — of the order of 2,000 trillion cubic feet. The Krishna-Godavari basin alone has about 134 tcft.
- Methane is the best among all fossil fuels — far better than coal. Carbon dioxide capture and storage is a costly affair.
- In a coal-fired thermal power plant, it could take up 25 per cent of the power produced by the plant.
- Methane mined from gas hydrates can pay for it. But, importantly, the net carbon dioxide emission will be less than the unabated emissions from thermal plants.
- The conventional way of carbon capture and sequestration has been through the use of chemicals called amines. The problem here is that you have to spend a lot of energy to recover the amines. In contrast, separating carbon dioxide from carbon dioxide hydrates costs practically nothing.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Ongoing research at IIT Madras is looking closely at this ayurvedic therapy
- Shirodhara comes from the two Sanskrit words “shiro” (head) and “dhara” (flow). It’s an Ayurvedic healing technique that involves having someone pour liquid — usually oil, milk, buttermilk, or water — onto your forehead.
- The treatment involves the low-velocity impact of a medicinal liquid dropping on the forehead from a specific height, at a controlled temperature, for 30-60 minutes, for a defined number of days.
- It’s often combined with a body, scalp, or head massage.
- Shirodhara is said to have relaxing, soothing, and calming effects on the body and mind.
- Research also suggests that shirodhara may help:
- improve sleep quality
- manage insomnia
- lessen anxiety (when combined with yoga)
- reduce stress
- Shirodhara is a non-invasive brain relaxation therapy, comparable to the effects produced by yoga and meditation. However, unlike the other two, it does not require any effort from the patient.
Science behind it –
- It holds that a falling liquid on the forehead produces a vibration, which generates electromagnetic waves.
- These are transferred to the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, which has an impact on the brain and the central nervous system.
- This could reduce stress and, hence, hypertension.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context –The campaign to repeal the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) has also gathered steam after Nagaland violence.
- It was enacted by the Parliament and approved by the President in 1958.
- It confers certain special powers on members of the Armed Forces (military forces, air forces operating on the ground as land forces and any other armed forces of the Union (CRPF, BSF, ITBP etc) for carrying out proactive operations against the insurgents in a highly hostile environment.
- They have the authority to prohibit a gathering of five or more persons in an area.
- The AFSPA is also in force in the entire Nagaland, certain districts of Arunachal Pradesh, and most parts of Manipur barring the Imphal municipal areas.
- AFSPA gives armed forces the power to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
- A disturbed area is one which is declared by notification under Section 3 of the AFSPA. An area can be disturbed due to differences or disputes between members of different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities.
- The Central Government or the Governor of the State or administrator of the Union Territory can declare the whole or part of the State or Union Territory as a disturbed area.
- If reasonable suspicion exists, the army can also arrest a person without a warrant; enter or search premises without a warrant; and ban the possession of firearms.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Hyderabad’s rocket men aim for the stars. Their start-up test-fired India’s first privately built fully cryogenic engine last month
- Hyderabad-based Skyroot Aerospace successfully test-fired Dhawan-1 last month, it became the country’s first privately developed, fully cryogenic rocket engine running on two high-performance rocket propellants — liquid natural gas (LNG) and liquid oxygen (LoX).
- The engine was developed using 3D printing with a superalloy.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – States told to adopt Delhi Police model
- The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs has urged the State Governments to follow the crime analytics model of Delhi Police in preventing street crimes against women through crime mapping and identification of hotspots for reinforced action.
- Crime Mapping Analytics and Productive System and related tools were deployed on the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS).
- As part of the initiatives to strengthen the capacity to deal with cases of crimes against women, it was recommended that the SOP on registration of FIRs should include guidelines to police to record reasons for delay in reporting of crimes by the complainants to the police. A provision was made for recording this statement in the FIRs on the CCTNS.
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS)
- Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a Mission Mode project under the National e-Governance Plan for creating a single repository of crime and criminal data for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level.
- Out of total 16,098 police stations in the country, the CCTNS software is being implemented in over 95 per cent of police stations and connectivity is available at 97per cent police stations. 93 per cent police stations are entering 100 percent FIRs through CCTNS.
- CCTNS also created facilities and mechanism to provide public services like registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of case registered at the police station, verification of persons etc.
- Its aims to
- Provide Citizen Centric Police Services via a web portal
- Pan India search on National database of Crime & Criminal records
- Crime and Criminal reports at State and Center
- Computerization of Police Processes.
Subject – Art and culture
Context – In the wake of COVID¬19 pandemic and the Omicron variant, the Maharashtra Government has issued guidelines appealing to people not to crowd at Chaitya Bhoomi to pay respects to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar on his death anniversary.
- It is a Buddhist chaitya and the cremation place of B. R. Ambedkar, the chief architect of the Indian Constitution.
- It is situated besides Dadar Chowpatty (beach), Mumbai.
- Chaitya Bhoomi is a revered place of pilgrimage for Ambedkar’s followers, who visit in millions annually on his death anniversary (Mahaparinirvan Diwas) on 6 December.
- Ambedkar’s death anniversary (December 6th) is observed as Mahaparinirvan Din.
- Chaitya Bhoomi hosts a memorial to Ambedkar and has been graded an A-class tourism and pilgrimage site by the Government of Maharashtra.
- The main entrance gate of the Chaitya Bhoomi is replica of the Gate of the Stupa of Sanchi while inside a replica of Ashoka Pillar is made.
Subject – Polity
Context – Editor of Assam portal charged with sedition
- Sedition, which falls under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, is defined as any action that brings or attempts to bring hatred or contempt towards the government of India and has been illegal in India since 1870.
Historical Background of Sedition Law:
- Sedition laws were enacted in 17th century England when lawmakers believed that only good opinions of the government should survive, as bad opinions were detrimental to the government and monarchy.
- This sentiment (and law) was borrowed and inserted into the Section 124A of IPC in 1870, by the British.
- British used Sedition law to convict and sentence freedom fighters. It was first used to prosecute Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1897.
- Mahatama Gandhi, too, was later tried for sedition for his articles in Young India.
Supreme Court Observations
- In 1962, the Supreme Court decided on the constitutionality of Section 124A in KedarNath Singh v State of Bihar.
- It upheld the constitutionality of sedition, but limited its application to “acts involving intention or tendency to create disorder, or disturbance of law and order, or incitement to violence”.
- It distinguished these from “very strong speech” or the use of “vigorous words” strongly critical of the government.
- In 1995, the Supreme Court, in Balwant Singh v State of Punjab, held that mere sloganeering which evoked no public response did not amount to sedition.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Lok Sabha passed the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020, which makes provisions for the safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology (ART) services in the country.
- The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill relates to surrogacy, an infertility treatment, where a third person, a woman, is the surrogate mother.
- In ART, treatments can be availed by the commissioning couple themselves and it is not always necessary that a third person is involved.
- Surrogacy is allowed for only Indian married couples.
- ART procedures are open to married couples, live-in partners, single women, and also foreigners.
- A 2015 notification prohibits commissioning of surrogacy in India by foreigners or OCI or PIO cardholders, but NRIs holding Indian citizenship can avail surrogacy.
- Foreigners can visit India under medical tourism to avail ART services.
- Under the Surrogacy Bill, there will be a National Surrogacy Board that will be involved in policymaking, and act as a supervisory body, and State Boards that will act as executive bodies.
- The ART Bill provides for a National Board, with the powers vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure.
- According to the Health Ministry, the estimated number of clinics practising surrogacy in India is likely less than 1,000, while that of those practising ART is likely more than 40,000.
- Under the Bill, ART will include all techniques that attempt to obtain a pregnancy by handling the sperm or the oocyte outside the human body, and transferring the gamete or the embryo into the reproductive system of a woman.
- It defines an ART bank as an organisation set up to supply sperm or semen, oocytes, or oocyte donors to ART clinics or their patients.
- ART services will apply to women above the legal age of marriage and below 50, and to men above the legal age of marriage and below 55.