Daily Prelims Notes 6 October 2023
- October 6, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
6 October 2023
Table Of Contents
- Andhra Pradesh Seeks ₹7000 Crore Borrowing for FY 2023-2024
- CCI opts out as competition agencies get ranked globally
- Reserve Bank onboards 30 more banks on UDGAM portal
- Karnataka facing ‘green drought’ says Minister
- First public sector caravan park in Kerala to come up at Bekal
- Save the carbon bubble: India’s voluntary carbon market must be regulated and made to contribute to its climate goals
- Over $9 trillion investments in infrastructure resilience, Net Zero needed by 2050 to mitigate climate impact: CDRI
- Climate crisis in forests: Dandeli losing its distinctive grasses & hornbills to erratic weather
- Scavenging hyenas save carcass disposal costs
- Rights Of Person Under Arrest
- Eight year old boy at the heart of fight over Mongolian spiritual leader
- Nobel Prize for Literature 2023
- Cholera outbreak across Zimbabwe
Andhra Pradesh has requested permission to borrow ₹7,000 crore for the remaining duration of the fiscal year 2023-24. The state originally sought permission to borrow ₹11,000 crore for the same period, in accordance with the norms of Andhra Pradesh’s Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act. Currently, the Central government has already granted approval for borrowing ₹4,000 crore, leaving the state’s request for the remaining amount.
Under the amended Andhra Pradesh FRBM Act of 2005, the fiscal deficit is capped at 4 percent of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP).
- Article 293(3) of the Constitution – deals with the borrowing powers of states in India. It states that a state within the Indian Union cannot borrow money unless the President of India, on the recommendation of the Governor of that state, has given his consent to such borrowing.
- In simpler terms, this article requires the states to seek the President’s approval, based on the Governor’s recommendation, if they intend to borrow money. This provision is in place to ensure that state borrowing from the entities is done with proper oversight and authorization.
Why do states need the Centre’s permission for borrowing, and is it mandatory for all states?
States require the Centre’s consent for borrowing as per Article 293(3) of the Constitution when they are indebted to the Centre due to previous loans. This requirement applies to all states in India because they are currently indebted to the Centre.
Why are these restrictions necessary?
These restrictions serve the purpose of protecting the Centre’s interests as a creditor and ensuring macroeconomic stability. State indebtedness can have a negative impact on the overall fiscal health of the nation, making it essential to maintain fiscal discipline and stability.
What is the FRBM Act?
The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBM Act), 2003, establishes financial discipline to reduce fiscal deficit.
What are the objectives of the FRBM Act?
- The FRBM Act aims to introduce transparency in India’s fiscal management systems.
- The Act’s long-term objective is for India to achieve fiscal stability and to give the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) flexibility to deal with inflation in India.
Key features of the FRBM Act:
The FRBM Act made it mandatory for the government to place the following along with the Union Budget documents in Parliament annually:
- Medium Term Fiscal Policy Statement.
- Macroeconomic Framework Statement.
- Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement.
What is Fiscal Deficit?
- Fiscal deficit is the difference between the government’s total expenditure and its total revenue (excluding borrowings).
- It is an indicator of the extent to which the government must borrow in order to finance its operations and is expressed as a percentage of the country’s GDP.
Finance Commission: –
The Finance Commission is a constitutional body in India that plays a crucial role in fiscal federalism. It is established under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution, and its primary function is to recommend the distribution of financial resources between the central government and the state governments.
Here’s a brief overview of the Finance Commission’s key functions and responsibilities:
- Resource Distribution: The primary task of the Finance Commission is to recommend the division of tax revenues and other financial resources between the Union (central government) and the states. This division ensures a fair and equitable distribution of funds to meet the needs of both the central and state governments.
- Tax Devolution: The Commission recommends the share of central taxes to be allocated to the states. This allocation is vital for states to finance their various development programs and functions.
- Grants-in-Aid: In addition to tax devolution, the Finance Commission also suggests grants-in-aid to states that may have special financial needs or face fiscal challenges. These grants aim to support states in fulfilling their obligations and responsibilities.
- Fiscal Transfers: The Commission examines the fiscal situation of both the Union and the states and recommends measures to augment the revenue resources of the states. It also assesses the need for and provides recommendations on revenue-sharing agreements between states.
- Other Matters: Apart from resource distribution, the Finance Commission may also be tasked with examining any other financial or fiscal matters referred to it by the President of India.
- Five-Year Cycle: The Finance Commission is typically constituted every five years. Each new Commission’s recommendations are applicable for a specific five-year period, ensuring periodic reviews and adjustments in the fiscal relationship between the central and state governments.
- Independence: The Commission is expected to make recommendations independently, free from political interference. Its members are typically experts in finance, economics, and related fields.
- Parliament’s Approval: The Commission’s recommendations are presented to the President, who, in turn, lays them before Parliament. These recommendations need the approval of both houses of Parliament to become effective.
In summary, the Finance Commission is a crucial institution in India’s fiscal federal structure, playing a vital role in ensuring the equitable distribution of financial resources between the central government and the states, as well as addressing fiscal disparities and promoting cooperative federalism.
Subject : Economy
Context: CCI opts out of Rating Enforcement Survey; Remained “unranked” along with Competition Agencies of Canada, China, US DoJ& FTC
- Competition Commission of India (CCI), has been ranked 2.8 (out of 5) on Market Perception Rating in the results of 23rd edition of Rating Enforcement of Global Competition Review (GCR)
- GCR is a global publisher of news, analysis, and events related to the competition law and policy industry.
- European Union’s Directorate-General for Competition and Germany’s Federal Cartel Office were top ranked as “elite” with 5 star ratings.
- Australia’s Competition & Consumer Commission, France’s Competition Authority, South Korea’s Fair Trade Commission, and United Kingdom’s Competition and Markets Authority were ranked as “very good” with 4.5-star ratings.
Other unranked countries:
- The other jurisdictions and Agencies which remained “Unranked” are: Canada’s Competition Bureau, China’s State Administration for Market Regulation, US Department of Justice and US Federal Trade Commission.
- CCI was lauded for its action in 2022, when it took three of its biggest enforcement decisions ever in the span of one week in October 2022:
- The watchdog ordered Google to pay a combined 22.8 billion Indian rupees (€247.million) in fines for abusing its dominance over the Android operating system and its payment processing services. I
- t also sanctioned MakeMyTrip and hotel company Oravel Stays in one of its first orders targeting multi-sided platforms.
- The authority also advanced other behavioural probes into Apple and Google’s news publishing”, added a release issued by GCR.
Challenges for CCI:
- After the last chairperson of CCI stepped down after four years as chair, the agency was left without the required number of commissioners to issue decisions.
- In the absence of a quorum CCI could not clear M&A cases. Later it had to invoke the ‘doctrine of necessity’ to continue examining and clearing combination (M&A) cases, despite a lack of quorum
- It was only in 2023 that the government appointed Ravneet Kaur as CCI chairperson , choking the CCI’s conduct work in the meantime.
- Government approved sweeping amendments to the country’s competition law, which will allow the CCI to impose fines based on global turnover.
- To complement the CCI’s enforcement efforts, the government has also set up a stand-alone expert committee to draft a Digital Competition Act.
Subject : Economy
Section: Monetary Policy
In News: RBI onboards more banks to UDGAM to help people to search and claim their unclaimed deposits across multiple banks in one place.
- RBI had in August 2023 launched a centralised web portal UDGAM to help people to search and claim their unclaimed deposits across multiple banks in one place.
- Reserve Bank Information Technology Pvt Ltd (ReBIT), Indian Financial Technology & Allied Services (IFTAS) and participating banks have collaborated on developing the portal.
- Portal has been developed for use by the public to make it easier to search for unclaimed deposits.
- Reserve Bank of India has by far onboarded 30 banks on its UDGAM platform, a portal that enables the public to search for unclaimed deposits.
- With this banks have been onboarded for around 90 per cent of such unclaimed deposits (in value terms) in Depositor Education and Awareness (DEA) Fund.
- About ₹35,000 crore unclaimed deposits as of February 2023 were transferred to the RBI by public sector banks (PSBs) in respect of deposits, which were not operated for 10 years or more.
- The deposits remaining unclaimed for 10 years in a bank are transferred to the ‘Depositor Education and Awareness’ (DEA) Fund maintained by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
| Indian Financial Technology & Allied Services (IFTAS)|
Reserve Bank Information Technology Pvt Ltd (ReBIT)
The 4 fully Owned subsidiaries of RBI:
Section: Physical geography
- Centre’s drought review team starting its tour of 13 drought-affected districts in Karnataka. The 10-member inter-ministerial Central team, led by Joint Secretary of Agriculture department Ajit Kumar Sahu, will be touring Belagavi, Vijayapura, Bagalkote, Dharwad, Gadag, Koppal, Ballari, Vijayanagar, Chickballapura, Tumakuru, Chitradurga, Davangere, and Bengaluru Rural districts.
- The State government has urged the team to understand the impact of rainfall deficiency on agriculture rather than arriving at a conclusion looking at the standing crops.
What is ‘green drought’?
- Green drought is when the vegetation may appear green on the top, but there is stunted growth and soil moisture stress for more than a month impacting yield drastically.
- This phenomenon is particularly problematic because it can be challenging to detect and monitor.
Green drought situation in Karnataka:
- There are 15 states that are facing drought, only Karnataka has declared drought and approached the Centre so far.
- In drought-hit regions of Karnataka the height of a tur plant, which is still green, has come down to 2.5ft as against the normal 5ft. The yield has fallen.
- Usually, each bunch of green gram will have 200 gm yield. This has come down to 50 gm now.
- Karnataka has witnessed 15 drought years between 2001 and 2022.
- Agricultural crop loss on 39.74 lakh hectares. Horticultural crop loss on 1.82 lakh hectares
- Most crops like paddy, ragi, red gram, groundnut, sunflower and cotton are usually sown in July and August; This year, however, they remain unsown due to erratic distribution of rain.
- Geo-fencing of 20,221 plots done. Overall in all 196 taluks, 85 percent of the ground truth reveals more than 50 percent crop loss.
Section: Medieval India
- Kerala has decided to set up a caravan park at Bekal fort in Kasaragod district of Kerala.
- Proposals to set up more caravan parks at Ponmudi in Thiruvananthapuram and Bolgatty Palace in Kochi.
- The caravan park at Bekal will be the first public sector park in the State.
- Currently, there is only one caravan park in the State named ‘Karavan Meadows’, run by a private player at Wagamon.
- Bekal Fort is a medieval fort built by Shivappa Nayaka of Keladi in 1650 AD, at Bekal. It is the largest fort in Kerala, spreading over 40 acres (160,000 m2).
- The fort appears to emerge from the sea. Almost three-quarters of its exterior is in contact with water.
- An important feature is the water-tank, magazine and the flight of steps leading to an observation tower built by Tipu Sultan.
- Its solid construction resembles the Thalassery Fort and the St. Angelo Fort at Kannur built by the Dutch.
- Historical perspective:
- After the Battle of Talikota in 1565 feudatory chieftains including the Keladi Nayakas (Ikkeri Nayaks) became powerful in the region. Bekal served as a hub to first dominate, then later defend Malabar.
- The economic importance of this port town prompted the Nayakas to fortify Bekal subsequently. Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka initiated the construction of the fort and it was completed in 1650 AD by Shivappa Nayaka.
- Chandragiri fort near Kasargod was also built during this period.
- The struggles between the Kolathiries and nayaks to hold this area ended when Hyder Ali conquered the Nayakas and Bekal fell into the hands of Mysore kings.
Section: Climate Change
- In May this year, the Zimbabwe government declared all voluntary carbon credit schemes “null and void”, causing huge consternation to the developers of the projects.
- The carbon market should be a real market, not a secret pact between a buyer and seller
- If not properly evaluated, projects under the carbon market can lead to more GHG emissions
- Countries have sold off all cheap options of emission reductions. They would now be in the balance sheet of foreign entities and and will not be able to make investments in hard-to-abate options
Regulation of voluntary carbon markets across globe:
- Countries that have announced some ind of regulations to their voluntary carbon markets are: Zimbabwe, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Indonesia and Nigeria.
India’s notification on carbon trade:
- India is enacting legislations and policies by different ministries—and it is not clear how coordinated these actions are—to create and regulate a carbon credits market and to incentivise people to join a green credits programme.
- The Union power ministry issued a notification on its Carbon Credit Trading Scheme.
- Under this, the government would constitute a National Steering Committee for the Indian carbon market.
- The committee would be tasked with the governance of the Indian carbon market and direct oversight of its functioning.
- The Bureau of Energy Efficiency, an agency under the power ministry, would be the designated administrator of the Indian carbon market.
- The Grid Controller of India Limited shall act as the registry and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission will be the
- The notification is silent on the voluntary carbon market or the issue of export of credits.
- The Union environment ministry notified the Draft Green Credit Programme Implementation Rules, 2023.
- The programme is a domestic voluntary market that incentivises voluntary environmental actions so that it promotes the government’s Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment).
- It has listed actions, including planting trees, which would get “green credits” and is described as “singular unit of an incentive provided for a specified activity delivering a positive impact on the environment”.
- It goes on to say that an activity generating green credits under the green credit programme may also acquire carbon credits for the same activity under the carbon market. These green credits will be traded on a domestic market platform.
- The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education will be the administrator, who will create technical or sectoral committees to develop methodologies, standards and processes for registration of green credit activities and grant of green credits.
- It opens the compensatory afforestation activities by private entities to incentives and participation in the domestic carbon market.
- As an implementation measure for the Paris Agreement, the government in February 2023, issued a list of activities that could be considered for trading of carbon credits under bilateral programmes under Article 6.2.
- This list includes renewable projects, including solar projects with storage, offshore wind, hydrogen and the best available technologies for the hard-to-abate sector.
- In this list, the government’s effort is to ensure that bilateral trading of carbon credits is in the high-end sectors, which would be expensive for India to undertake.
Section: International convention
- Biennial Report on Global Infrastructure Resilience: Capturing the Resilience Dividend released by Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
About the report- Global Infrastructure Resilience: Capturing the Resilience Dividend:
- Published by: Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
- The Global Infrastructure Resilience Report addresses a crucial void in the ongoing discourse on infrastructure resilience by providing a compelling argument from economic, financial, and political perspectives for prioritizing investments in resilience. It brings together an unprecedented collection of evidence, delivering a strong case to significantly increase infrastructure resilience investments.
- Climate change may lead to an estimated global average annual loss (AAL) in infrastructure sectors and buildings of between $732 and $845 billion.
- Around 14 percent of 2021- 2022 global gross domestic product is at risk.
- While climate change is expected to increase AAL by 11 per cent in high-income countries, it may increase by 12-22 per cent in middle-income countries and 33 per cent in low-income countries.
- The report advocated for nature-based infrastructure systems, which have average costs of only 51 per cent of gray infrastructure projects.
- CDRI is a global partnership of national governments, United Nations agencies and programmes, multilateral development banks and financing mechanisms, the private sector, and academic and research institutions.
- It aims to increase the resilience of infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks, thereby ensuring sustainable development.
- It was launched in 2019, at the United Nations Climate Action Summit in New York.
- It is the Government of India’s second major global initiative after the International Solar Alliance, and it demonstrates India’s leadership in climate change and disaster resilience issues.
- Since its inception, 31 countries, 6 international organisations and 2 private sector organisations have joined CDRI as members.
- 6 International Organisations: Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank Group, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), European Union, European Investment Bank.
- 2 Private Sector Organisations: The Private Sector Alliance for Disaster Resilient Societies and Coalition for Climate Resilient Investment.
Other initiatives of CDRI:
- Infrastructure For Resilient Island States (IRIS):
- IRIS was jointly launched at the World Leaders Summit at COP26 in Glasgow, UK, by the Prime Ministers of India, UK, Australia, Fiji, Jamaica and
- IRIS is a dedicated initiative that aims to support Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in achieving sustainable development through a systematic approach to resilient, sustainable, and inclusive infrastructure.
- Global Infrastructure Risk Model and Resilience Index, or GIRI:
- A core initiative of the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).
- GIRI is the first ever fully probabilistic risk assessment covering global infrastructure sectors.
- It is expected that it will inform planning, decision making and investment in disaster and climate resilient infrastructure by providing credible and fully comparable probabilistic risk metrics that cover every country and territory in the world.
- The GIRI will measure resilience in major infrastructure sectors, such as power and energy, transport, telecommunications, and water, as well as in social infrastructure such as education and health. The GIRI will estimate risk to major hazards such as tropical cyclones, flood, drought, landslide, earthquake, and tsunami, considering a range of climate change scenarios and will also consider the capacity of countries to manage and reduce the risks they face.
Section: Protected Area
- In recent years, rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns in the Dandeli forest area are impacting the forest ecosystem and the people living around them and dependent on them.
Dandeli forests and Wildlife sanctuary:
- The Dandeli forest in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka is known for its forest grasses, birds and cattle herders.
- Along with neighboring Anshi National Park, the sanctuary was declared part of the Anshi Dandeli Tiger Reserve in 2006.
- It is also an elephant reserve under the Project elephant.
- There are around 100 different types of grasses that grow in the undergrowth of the Dandeli forest.
- These are the primary sources of food for the herbivore population of the forest such as barking deer, chital (spotted deer) and elephants.
- The wildlife sanctuary is known for its great hornbill (great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill), the Malabar pied hornbill and the elusive black panther.
Changes in the ecology of dandeli forests and its impact:
- The grasses are being replaced by eupatorium weed, which is not eaten by the herbivores and is prone to fires.
- Eupatorium is a non-native species introduced in the area during the British rule for decorative purposes.
- During the colonial era the lush semi-evergreen and evergreen forests were replaced by monoculture teak plantations and the general character of the forest also changed from semi-evergreen to moist deciduous.
- The British had banned controlled fires in the forest, which was practiced by local farmers for slash and burn cultivation. This, in turn, led to there being uncontrolled forest fires. This is because dry leaves, tree limbs and other inflammable debris would be removed during controlled fires, limiting the chances of wildfires.
- The flowering and fruiting patterns of the more than 40 different varieties of fig trees that grow in Dandeli, have changed. The fig fruits are the main source of nutrition for most of the local birds in the area, especially the Malabar pied hornbill.
- Honey collection in the area has reduced in recent years as the ficus trees are not flowering properly.
Section: Species in news
- A new study estimates the monetary benefits of striped hyenas scavenging on livestock carcasses and wild prey in Rajasthan’s Sawai Mansingh Wildlife Sanctuary.
- The waste disposal services provided by striped hyenas may also play a role in hindering disease transmission.
- Educating local communities on the monetary benefits of striped hyenas scavenging services may play a role in removing their negative image and aid in the conservation of these carnivores.
- Four species of hyenas exist in the world, of which, one, the striped hyena, is found in India.
- Sporting a dog-like appearance, striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) are large, solitary carnivores that inhabit arid and semiarid landscapes from East Africa to South Asia.
- The shy, nocturnal animals rarely hunt or kill livestock. Instead, they feed opportunistically on remains of animals predated by larger carnivores such as tigers and leopards and discarded domestic livestock carcasses.
- The main diet of the striped hyenas is livestock, mainly cows and buffaloes but wild prey such as nilgai, sambar, wild boar, and chital also contribute to the diet of striped hyenas.
- Ecological significance of Hyenas:
- Owing to their powerful jaws and teeth, hyenas have a unique ability to crush and consume bones. Without bone scavengers, skeletons would take many years to decompose depending on the environmental conditions.
- The concentration of calcium and phosphorus, key components of bones, in hyena fecesis between 1,000 to 20,000 times higher than in local soils in two reserves in southern Africa.
- Consequently, the soils in which hyenas defecate will become enriched with these nutrients, changing the fertility of the landscape with important implications for plant growth, community composition and animal diet quality.
The Patiala House court allowed news portal NewsClick founder Prabir Purkayastha and human resource head Amit Chakraborty to get a copy of the first information report (FIR) in the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act(UAPA) case filed against them by the Delhi Police.
Safeguards against Arbitrary Arrest and Detention
Clauses (1) and (2) of Article 22 guarantee four rights on a person who is arrested for any offence under an ordinary law-
- The right to be informed ‘as soon as may be’ of ground of arrest’.
- The right to consult and to be represented by a lawyer of his own choice.
- The right to be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours.
- The freedom from detention beyond the said period except by the order of the magistrate.
The above fundamental rights guaranteed to arrested persons by clauses (1) and (2) of Article 22 are available to both citizens and non-citizens and not to persons arrested and detained under any law providing for preventive detention.
- Clause (3) of Article 22 provides two exceptions to the rule contained in clauses (1) and (2).
- It provides that the rights given to arrested person under clauses (1) and (2) are not available to following persons:
- An enemy alien
- A person arrested and detained under Preventive Detention law.
Meaning of Preventive Detention
- It involves the detainment (containment) of a person in order to keep him/her from committing future crimes and/or from escaping future prosecution.
- Article 22 (3) (b) of the Constitution allows for preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty for reasons of state security and public order.
Safeguards against arrest or detention made under a law providing for preventive detention
- Clauses (4) to (7) of Article 22 contain the procedural requirements which are to be complied with when a person is detained under a law providing for preventive detention. These are as follows-
- No detention beyond three months unless such detention is approved by the Advisory Board.
- The detaining authority must communicate, as soon as may be, to the detenu, the grounds for such detention.
- The detenu must be afforded the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order of detention.
- No detention beyond the maximum period prescribed under a law made by Parliament under Clause 7(a).
Purpose of the Preventive detention
- In the case of Mariappan vs. The District Collector and Others, the Court held that the aim of detention and its laws is not to punish anyone but to stop certain crimes from being committed.
About Unlawful (Activities) Prevention Act (UAPA)
Background: The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act is an anti-terrorism law in India that was first introduced in 1967.
Purpose: The purpose of UAPA is to prevent unlawful activities that threaten the sovereignty and integrity of India.
Amendments: UAPA has undergone several revisions since its introduction, with each revision making the law more stringent. Till 2004, “unlawful” activities referred to actions related to secession and cession of territory. Following the 2004 amendment, terrorist act was added to the list of offences.
Provisions: UAPA provides for the designation of individuals and organizations as “terrorists” and allows for their arrest and detention without trial for up to 180 days.
Criticisms: UAPA has been criticized for being used to stifle dissent and suppress political opposition. Critics argue that the law is vague and overbroad, allowing for its misuse and abuse.
More about the news:
- An affluent Mongolian boy born into a mining dynasty unexpectedly becomes a pivotal figure in a struggle between the Dalai Lama and the Chinese Communist Party.
- Identified as the 10th reincarnation of the Bogd, a significant figure in Tibetan Buddhism, his selection challenges Chinese influence and puts Mongolia’s relations with China to the test.
- The boy’s privileged background raises concerns of elitism in the selection process, while geopolitical implications loom large, including potential repercussions for U.S.-Mongolia relations.
- The Dalai Lama’s choice signifies a shift in power within Tibetan Buddhism, with China aiming to control the faith globally.
Significance of the Recognition in Tibetan Buddhism:
- The recognition of the Mongolian boy as the reincarnation of Khalkha Jetsun Dhampa Rinpoche is a significant event in Tibetan Buddhism.
- The Dalai Lama himself is recognized as the 10th Khalkha Jetsun Dhampa Rinpoche, and his recognition of the boy as the reincarnation of one of his predecessors carries significant weight within the religion.
Some Details about Dalai Lama:
- Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or “Yellow Hat” school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
- The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso.
- He was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet.
- At the age of two, the child, then named Lhamo Dhondup, was recognized as the reincarnation of the previous 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.
- The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet.
- Bodhisattvas are realized beings inspired by a wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings, who have vowed to be reborn in the world to help humanity.
- In his Holiness the Dalai Lama 1989 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent struggle for the liberation of Tibet.
How Dalai Lama is selected:
- Following the Buddhist belief in the principle of reincarnation, the current Dalai Lama is believed by Buddhists to be able to choose the body into which he is reincarnated.
- That person, when found, will then become the next Dalai Lama.
- According to Buddhist scholars it is the responsibility of the High Lamas of the Gelugpa tradition and the Tibetan government to seek out and find the next Dalai Lama following the death of the incumbent.
- If more than one candidate is identified, the true successor is found by officials and monks drawing lots in a public ceremony.
- Once identified, the successful candidate and his family are taken to Lhasa (or Dharamsala) where the child studies the Buddhist scriptures in order to prepare for spiritual leadership.
- This process can take several years: it took four years to find the 14th (current) Dalai Lama.
- The search is generally limited to Tibet, although the current Dalai Lama has said that there is a chance that he will not be reborn, and that if he is, it will not be in a country under Chinese rule.
Context: The Nobel Prize for Literature 2023 has been awarded to Norwegian author Jon Olav Fosse.
More about the news:
- The Nobel Prize for Literature 2023 has been awarded to Norwegian author Jon Olav Fosse, for his “innovative plays and prose which give voice to the unsayable
Who is Jon Fosse:
- Fosse writes in Norwegian Nynorsk, the least common of the two official versions of Norwegian.
- Born in 1959, Fosse first started writing novels, switching to plays in his 30s.
- He went on to become one of Norway’s most-performed dramatists, and is in fact counted among the most performed of living European dramatists.
- His work has been translated into more than 40 languages.
- Fosse has written around 40 plays, apart from novels, short stories, children’s books, poetry and essays.
- His “A New Name: Septology VI-VII” was a finalist for the International Booker Prize last year.
- Other notable works by Fosse include I Am the Wind, Melancholy, Boathouse, and The Dead Dogs.
Some details about his Writing styles
- His writing is marked by straightforward, concise, and piercing dialogues.
- It shares resemblances with the works of Nobel laureates Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter.
- In his writing, he delves into:
- The inexplicable, pointless, yet impactful aspects of the human experience.
- The commonplace perplexities and unresolved dilemmas of daily life.
- The challenge of establishing genuine connections, often hindered by, or even exacerbated through, communication.
More details about Nobel Prize:
- The Nobel Prize was set up when businessman and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel died and left the majority of his fortune to the establishment of prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace
- The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually in six categories: Peace, Literature, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Economic Sciences.
- The Economic Sciences category was added later in 1968 and is officially known as the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
- The first Prizes were awarded in 1901
- The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the others are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.
- The Nobel Prize consists of a Nobel Medal and Diploma, and a document confirming the prize amount
- The Nobel Prize cannot be given posthumously and it cannot be shared between more than three people.
- One cannot nominate himself/herself for a Nobel Prize.
Section: Places in news
Context: Cholera outbreak across Zimbabwe kills up to 100 people
More about the news:
- Zimbabwe is facing a cholera crisis with 100 suspected deaths and over 5,000 possible cases since last month.
- The government has imposed restrictions to curb the disease’s spread, including limiting funeral attendance to 50 people, halting some social gatherings, and discouraging open markets.
- The outbreak has now spread across 41 districts, including the capital, Harare, with neighboring countries also grappling with cholera outbreaks.
- Inadequate infrastructure and sanitation have historically contributed to cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe, with the worst outbreak in 2008 claiming over 4,000 lives.
Some facts about Zimbabwe:
- Zimbabwe is a landlocked country of southern Africa.
- It shares a border on the south with South Africa and is surrounded on the west by Botswana, on the north by Zambia, and on the northeast and east by Mozambique.
- The capital and largest city is Harare, and the second largest is Bulawayo.
- Zimbabwe, lies to the north of the Tropic of Capricorn, is completely within the tropics but enjoys subtropical conditions.
- It is dominated by Savannah grasslands.
- The Zimbabwean dollar is the official currency of the country.
- Zimbabwe’s largest ethnic group are the Shona, who make up 80% of the population, followed by the Northern Ndebele.
- Zimbabwe is a republic with a presidential system of government. The semi-presidential system was abolished with the adoption of a new constitution after a referendum in 2013.