Daily Prelims Notes 7 August 2020
- August 7, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- 103rd Amendment
- Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
- Bench mark interest rate
- Swadeshi Movement
- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
- Sangam Period
- Priority Sector Lending
- Kisan rail
- Current account /cash credit/overdraft
- Abanindranath Tagore
Supreme Court has referred a batch of petitions challenging the 103rd Constitution Amendment of 2019 to a five-judge Constitution Bench
- It provides for 10% reservation in government jobs and educational institutions for Economically Weaker Section by amending Articles 15 and 16 that deal with the fundamental right to equality.
- An additional clause was added to both provisions, giving Parliament the power to make special laws for EWS like it does for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes. The states are to notify who constitute EWS to be eligible for reservation.
- The law was challenged primarily that it violates the Basic Structure of the Constitution. This argument stems from the view that the special protections guaranteed to socially disadvantaged groups is part of the Basic Structure and that the 103rd Amendment departs from this by promising special protections on the sole basis of economic status
- Another challenge has been made on behalf of private, unaided educational institutions. They have argued that their fundamental right to practice a trade/profession is violated when the state compels them to implement its reservation policy and admit students on any criteria other than merit.
2. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome
Subject: Science and tech
A disease called Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS) has killed seven and infected at least 60 in China
- Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) belongs to the Bunyavirus family and is transmitted to humans through tick bites.
- The virus was first identified by a team of researchers in China over a decade ago.
- The first few cases were reported in rural areas of Hubei and Henan provinces in 2009.
- Due to the rate at which it spreads and its high fatality rate, SFTS has been listed among the top 10 priority diseases blue print by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
The Reserve Bank of India has kept the interest rates unchanged seeking to contain a rise in retail inflation even as growth remains a concern.
- The repo rate (the interest rate at which the RBI provides liquidity to banks to overcome short-term mismatches), thus, continues to remain at 4 per cent.
- This rate has been cut twice by a cumulative 115 basis points since March in view of the deteriorating growth outlook for the economy.
Subject: Science and tech
SpaceX’s prototypeuncrewed “Mars ship” which is a part of the Starship spacecraft, successfully flew to an altitude of over 500 feet for a little less than 60 seconds
- Designed by SpaceX, Starship is a spacecraft and super-heavy booster rocket meant to act as a reusable transportation system for crew and cargo to the Earth’s orbit, Moon and Mars.
- SpaceX has described Starship as “the world’s most powerful launch vehicle” with an ability to carry over 100 metric tonnes to the Earth’s orbit.
- Starship has been under development since 2012 and is a part of Space X’s central mission to make interplanetary travel accessible and affordable and to become the first private company to do so.
- Therefore, the company is working on building a fleet of reusable launch vehicles, capable of carrying humans to Mars and other destinations in the solar system.
National Handloom Day is celebrate on 7 August to commemorate launch of Swadeshi Movement in 1905.
- In 1900, Bengal was the major province in British India. The Indian national movement began in Bengal and thus, Britishers decided to part Bengal.
- When Lord Curzon, then Viceroy of India, announced the partition of Bengal in July 1905, Indian National Congress, initiated Swadeshi movement in Bengal.
- Swadeshi movement was launched as a protest movement which also gave a lead to the Boycott movement in the country.
- In 1909, the movement had spread across the country and people had started anti-partition and anti-colonial movements.
- In 1910, there were many secret associations that had been set up and there were many revolutionary movements, which were synonymous to Swadeshi movement
- Key people in the Swadeshi movement: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, LalaLajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghosh, VO Chidambaram Pillai and Babu Genu
6. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
In addition to 112 startups already funded, 234 startups in the agriculture and allied sectors will be funded under the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
- Concerned by the slow growth in the Agriculture and allied sectors, the National Development Council (NDC), in its meeting held on 29th May, 2007 resolved that a special Additional Central Assistance Scheme (RKVY) be launched.
- The NDC resolved that agricultural development strategies must be reoriented to meet the needs of farmers and called upon the Central and State governments to evolve a strategy to rejuvenate agriculture.
- The NDC reaffirmed its commitment to achieve 4 per cent annual growth in the agricultural sector during the 11th plan.
- The Department of Agriculture, in compliance of the above resolution and in consultation with the Planning Commission, has prepared the guidelines for the RKVY scheme, to be known as National Agriculture Development Programme (RKVY).
- In order to contribute directly and indirectly to enhancing the income of farmers by providing opportunites to them and to provide employment to youth, start-ups are being encouraged.
- A component, Innovation and Agri-entrepreneurship Development programme has been launched under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana in order to promote innovation and agripreneurship by providing financial support and nurturing the incubation ecosystem.
- These start-ups are in various categories such as agro-processing, artificial intelligence, digital agriculture, farm mechanisation, waste to wealth, dairy, fisheries
Artefacts and pottery dating to the Sangam period were unearthed at Kodukkur village, located on the banks of Sankarabaraniriver in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu
- The artefacts, including black and red ware, conical shaped bowls, part of amphoras, various types of jars and lids with intricate carvings, were found spread in an expanse of 50 acres of agricultural lands on the southern bank of the river.
- The site is located close to the National Fossil Wood Park in Thiruvakkarai.
- The period roughly between the 3rd century B.C. and 3rd century A.D. in South India (the area lying to the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra) is known as Sangam Period.
- It has been named after the Sangam academies held during that period that flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.
- At the sangams eminent scholars assembled and functioned as the board of censors and the choicest literature was rendered in the nature of anthologies.
- The literary works of this period were the earliest specimens of Dravidian literature.
- According to the Tamil legends, there were three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) held in the ancient South India popularly called Muchchangam.
- The First Sangam, is believed to be held at Madurai, attended by gods and legendary sages. No literary work of this Sangam is available.
- The Second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram, only Tolkappiyam survives from this.
- The Third Sangam was also held at Madurai. A few of these Tamil literary works have survived and are a useful sources to reconstruct the history of the Sangam period.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) decided to broaden the scope of priority sector lending (PSL) by including start-ups and enhancing borrowing limits for renewable energy sectors.
- Priority Sector refers to those sectors of the economy which may not get timely and adequate credit.
- Priority Sector Lending is an important role given by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to the banks for providing a specified portion of the bank lending to few specific sectors.
- As per the RBI circular released in 2016, there are eight broad categories of the Priority Sector Lending. They are: (1) Agriculture (2) Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (3) Export Credit (4) Education (5) Housing (6) Social Infrastructure (7) Renewable Energy (8) Others.
- 40 per cent of Adjusted Net Bank Credit or Credit Equivalent Amount of Off-Balance Sheet Exposure, whichever is higher for domestic scheduled commercial banks (excluding Regional Rural Banks and Small Finance Banks) and Foreign banks with 20 branches and above
- 40 per cent of Adjusted Net Bank Credit or Credit Equivalent Amount of Off-Balance Sheet Exposure, whichever is higher, to be achieved in a phased manner by 2020 for Foreign banks with less than 20 branches
9. Kisan rail
India’s first ‘Kisan Rail’ will run between Maharashtra and Bihar
- The announcement regarding the “Kisan Rail” was made in the current year’s Budget
- Setting up of a ‘Kisan Rail’ through the public-private-partnership (PPP) mode for a cold supply chain to transport perishable goods.
- This train will help in bringing perishable agricultural products like vegetables, fruits to the market in a short period of time. The train with frozen containers is expected to build a seamless national cold supply chain for perishables, inclusive of fish, meat and milk.
- This train is a step towards realizing the goal of doubling farmers’ incomes by 2022
10. Current account /cash credit/overdraft
RBI has put in place certain safeguards amid rising concerns over borrowers using multiple operating accounts, both current as well as cash credit (CC)/overdraft (OD).
- An overdraft is an extension of credit from a lending institutionthat is granted when an account reaches zero.
- The overdraft allows the account holder to continue withdrawing money even when the account has no funds in it or has insufficient funds to cover the amount of the withdrawal
National Galary of Modern Art is going to organise the virtual tour titled “The Great Maestro Abanindranath Tagore” to commemorate the 150th Birth Anniversary of Abanindranath Tagore on 7th August 2020.
- He was the first major supporter of swadeshi values in Indian art. Abanindranath first created the ‘Indian Society of Oriental Art’ and later went on to establish Bengal school of art.
- His sole aim for establishing the school was to counter the English influence on Indian artists. He did that by incorporating Indian elements in his works and achieved success when British art institutions gave in and accepted to teach and propagate his style of works in their organizations.
- His idea of modernizing Mughal and Rajput paintings eventually gave rise to modern Indian painting, which took birth at his Bengal school of art.
- Abanindranath is also regarded as a proficient and accomplished writer. Most of his literary works were meant for children.Some of his books like ‘BudoAngla’, ‘KhirerPutul’ and ‘Rajkahini’ are best examples of Bengali children’s literature.
- Abanindranath Tagore believed in the traditional Indian techniques of painting. He rejected the materialistic art of the West and emphasized on returning to the Indian traditional art forms. He believed that Indian art and its art forms gave importance to spirituality as opposed to the West which stressed on materialism.
- He was very much influenced by the Mughal School of painting as well as Whistler’s Aestheticism.
- In his later works, Abanindranath started integrating Chinese and Japanese calligraphic traditions into his style. The intention behind this move was to construct an amalgamation of the modern pan-Asian artistic tradition and the common elements of Eastern artistic and spiritual culture.
- Bharat Mata painting: This beautiful painting was completed in the year 1905. The painting depicts Bharat Mata (Mother India). She is portrayed as having four hands, carrying important elements in each of her hand. The painting reflects Indian tradition, which features in most of his works.