- April 26, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject: Science & Tech
Context- The growing EV mishaps are worrying. The Centre should act fast to establish battery safety standards.
- Sales of EV two wheelers have risen ﬁve times (463 per cent) to 2.31 lakh in 202122.
- This is the fastest growing segment, accounting for over half of total EV sales.
Why only EV Two wheelers catching fire:
- That only two wheeler batteries are catching ﬁre, and not those of cars or three wheelers, is not surprising because of two reasons —
- one, there are more two wheelers on the roads and,
- two, unlike the other segments, the two wheeler market is highly price sensitive, which has apparently driven the manufacturers to cut costs by compromising on safety.
- There is little doubt that the main culprit is battery chemistry.
- Lithium Ion batteries are of many makes, depending upon which other elements lithium has been married to.
- The most commonly used chemistry in two wheelers is nickel manganese cobalt, or NMC, which while being the best in terms of performance and costs, are the most inﬂammable.
- Not surprisingly, most two wheeler makers have procured NMC batteries from China. These are not suited to India’s hot climate.
- Other Li Ion chemistries, such as lithium ferro phosphate (LFP) and lithium titanate oxide (LTO) are costly, but safe.
What can be done:
- NMC could be used with safety features.
- There is plenty on the technology table — such as
- dual fuse for each cell which will automatically cut oﬀ if either the temperature or current exceeds a limit,
- active thermal management to cool down the battery,
- a temperature indicator with a buzzer to warn the rider and an emergency switchoﬀ system.
- The Centre should incentivise the use of solid state batteries, which have no inﬂammable, liquid electrolytes such as those based on abundant, indigenous materials such as sodium, zinc and aluminum.