- May 23, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
- Green shipping is an approach to shipping that aims to reduce emissions and pollutants released in the environment by using technology, cleaner fuels like LNG, renewables like green and blue hydrogen and digitization of the supply chain, implementing management practices like JIT (Just in Time). The aim is to make shipping green and sustainable.
- The term is not formally defined anywhere but is an umbrella term for initiatives that aim to 1. improve, energy efficiency 2. Reduce fossil fuel use 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions 4. Reduce various other pollutants released because of shipping.
- Some solutions to achieving green-shipping:
- Using Liquefied Natural gas (LNG) in place of the High Suphur Fuel Oil (HSFO) that is mostly used. But LNG infrastructure is not available at most ports.
- Shore-side supply of electricity (also called ‘Cold Ironing’) allows ships to shift to the more efficient electric power when ships are docked in the port.
- Shifting to use of marine diesel, which while costlier than HSFO/HFO but is also cleaner.
- Green/ Green-Hybrid Tugs: Using non-fossil fuels like (Methanol, Ammonia, Hydrogen) to power the tugs used at ports. [Tugs are small vessels that tow mega-ships into the port, ensuring collision avoidance]
- Greater integration with Multi-modal transport to the ports.
- Slow steaming is the term for putting a limit to the speed at which a ship may go, this is related to the concept of Just-in-Time management.
- Reducing Empty containers: Various carriers coordinate with each other to reduce transportation of empty containers.
- Ballast water management: The contamination of the ballast water (water filled in ship for stability) results in sea pollution due to bacteria, microbes, larvae that may be released where they are alien, thereby harming the environment.
- Formal measures:
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set clear standards, particularly with regard to sulphur content. In 2020, the sulphur content may only be half a percent.
- Future measures include, integrating shipping into the international trade of CO2 certificates. Maritime trade was also excluded under the Paris Climate Protection Agreement of 2015, but could be included in future agreements.
Measures taken by India:
- The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has announced 30% financial support for green shipping.
- Green Tug Transition Programme: ‘Green Hybrid Tugs’ will be used, 50% transition target by 2030.
- A National Centre of Excellence in Green Port & Shipping (NCoEGPS) has been set-up is the result of a collaboration between the Ministry of Ports, Shipping & Waterways, Government of India and the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). NCoEGPS will act as a technological arm of MoPSW for providing the needed support on Policy, Research and Cooperation on Green Shipping
- Government plans to make India as the ‘Global hub for building Green Ships’ by 2030. With these initiatives, the Centre is aimed at playing a crucial role towards the achievement of UN’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 14) to sustainably manage and protect marine & coastal ecosystems from pollution, conservation & sustainable use of ocean based resources.
- PM Gati Shakti – National Master Plan for Multi Modal Connectivity along with the Green Ports initiative has already accelerated the development of green logistics supply chain in the country.
- The Maritime Vision Document 2030, is a 10 Year blueprint on India’s vision of a sustainable Maritime sector and vibrant blue economy.
- Green Hydrogen Hubs to be set up at JNPT, VO Chidambaram Port, Tuticorin. (Green Hydrogen is hydrogen produced by using Solar or Wind ie. renewable energy. Blue hydrogen is produced from natural gas and supported by carbon capture and storage.)
- JNPT, VO Chidambaram Port, Tuticorin to become Smart Ports. Smart port allows coordination between ships and the ports to decide on optimum speed that allows the ships to reach Just-in-Time, giving savings on fuel.
|QUICK FACT SHEET ON PORTS and SHIPPING in INDIA|
Cargo Shipping = 151 MMT (Million Metric Tonne) in 2023
In-land Waterway Cargo = 126 MT (Metric Tonne) in 2023
Coastal berths infrastructure under Sagarmala Project
● 90 port modernisation projects have been completed
Various Initiatives to boost to boost coastal shipping:
The major ports are administered by the Shipping Ministry of the Central Government, while the minor ports are taken care off by the Ministry of the respective States where they are located.
Some Points about Shipping Sector:
● 100% FDI through Automatic route
● 95% trade by volume, 70% by value
Major Ports: India has a total of 13 Major ports
▪ West Coast
1. Kandla (Gujarat)
2. Mumbai (Maharashtra)
3. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust- Nhava Sheva (Maharashtra): LARGEST port
4. Marmugao (Goa)
5. New Mangalore (Karnataka)
6. Cochin (Kerala)
▪ East Coast
1. Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu)
2. Chennai (Tamil Nadu): SECOND LARGEST overall/ LARGEST on east coast
3. Ennore (Tamil Nadu)
4. Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
5. Paradip (Orissa)
6. Kolkata, Haldia (West Bengal)
7. Port Blair, Haddo (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)
Minor Ports: 189
Types of Ports based on type of harbor:
a. River, Medium Seaport: New Mangalore Port
b. deep-water, Large Seaport: Mumbai Port
a. Seaport: Ennore Port
b. Medium deep sea port: Tuticorin Port
c. Deep water port: Paradip Port
d. Coastal Natural: Panaji Port
3. Coastal Breakwater
a. River Natural, Medium Seaport: Haldia Port
b. Artificial Large Seaport: Chennai Port
4. Coastal Tide Gate, Large Seaport: Nhava Sheva (JNPT) Port
5. Breakwater, Large seaport: Vizag Port
6. Backwaters seaport: Cochin Port
7. Open Roadstead, large seaport: Kandla Port