- February 7, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- A new, highly virulent strain of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been discovered in the Netherlands.
- HIV infection was originated in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) around year 1920 when HIV crossed species from chimpanzees to humans.
- In 1959, the first known case of HIV in a human was confirmed in a man who died in Congo.
- HIV is a ribonucleic acid virus. Therefore, it is in its nature to mutate.
- HIV attacks CD4, a type of White Blood Cell (T cells) in the body’s immune system. T cells are those cells that move around the body detecting anomalies and infections in cells.
- After entering body, HIV multiplies itself and destroys CD4 cells, thus severely damaging the human immune system. Once this virus enters the body, it can never be removed.
- CD4 count of a person infected with HIV reduces significantly. In a healthy body, CD4 count is between 500- 1600, but in an infected body, it can go as low as 200.
- Weak immune system makes a person prone to opportunistic infections and cancer. It becomes difficult for a person infected with this virus to recover from even a minor injury or sickness.
- A person infected with HIV is likely to develop symptoms of AIDS over a period of time when his/er immune system is too weak to fight HIV infection. This is the last stage of HIV when the infection is very advanced and if left untreated will lead to death.
- By receiving treatment, severe form of HIV can be prevented.
- HIV is transmitted from person to person through bodily fluids including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, anal fluids and breast milk.
HIV-1 and HIV-2: There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2.
- HIV-1 is considered the predominant type, representing the vast majority of infections worldwide, while
- HIV-2 is far less common and primarily concentrated in the west and central African regions.
- While both of these HIV types can lead to AIDS, HIV-2 is much more difficult to transmit and far less virulent than HIV-1.