- May 15, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject: Science & Tech
Context- Researchers from IISc Bangalore have identified a protein in yeast cells that dissolve RNA Protein complexes also known as RNA granules.
- The cytoplasm of any cell consists of structures made of messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins known as RNA granules, in general.
- Unlike other structures in the cell (such as mitochondria), the RNA granules are not covered and conﬁned by a membrane.
- This makes them highly dynamic in nature, thereby allowing them to constantly exchange components with the surrounding.
- RNA granules are present in the cytoplasm at low numbers under normal conditions but increase in number and size under stressful conditions including diseases.(indicate neurological conditions)
- A deﬁning feature of the RNA granule protein is the presence of stretches containing repeats of certain amino acids i.e. Repeats of arginine (R), glycine (G) and glycine (G)—known as RGG.
- Messenger RNAs are converted to proteins (building blocks of the cell) by the process of translation.
- RNA granules determine messenger RNA (mRNA) fate by deciding when and how much protein would be produced from mRNA.
- Protein synthesis is a multistep and energy expensive process.
- RNA granules also help in the process of shutting down protein production.
- Some RNA granule types (such as Processing bodies or P bodies) not only regulate protein production but also accomplish degradation and elimination of the mRNAs, which in turn helps in reducing protein production.
- In yeast cells, a protein sbp1 promotes the disintegration of RNA granules which can help in tackling neurodegenerative disorders, caused by RNA granules.