- November 25, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject – Governance
Context – More hospital births, but limited gains in childhood nutrition: NFHS
- The NFHS provides estimates on key indicators related to population, family planning, child and maternal health, nutrition, adult health, and domestic violence, among others.
- Use of family planning methods increased; most states reduce their fertility rate, below the target of 2.1
- Sex ratio at birth has declined in a few states – Sex ratio at birth for children born in the last five years is below 950 for seven (of the 17) states.
Health and Nutrition
- Institutional births have increased -In 7 states, more than 90% of the births in the last five years were institutional births.
- Out of pocket expenditure on deliveries increased in some states
- Infant Mortality Rate has declined across states; however, malnourishment among children is increasing.
- Stunting or chronic malnutrition (i.e., low height with respect to age) has increased in 11 of the 17 states.
- Proportion of severely wasted children has increased in 13 of the 17 states.
- Wasting or acute malnutrition refers to low weight with respect to height.
- Children who are stunted or wasted are more vulnerable to diseases and illness.
- Obesity is rising for both men and women across all states.
Access to infrastructure
- Access to electricity, improved source of drinking water and sanitation facility has increased.
- More women using mobile phones across all states; however, many of them do not have access to internet.
- More women using bank accounts; ownership of house/ land amongst women declines in several states.
Gender related indicators
- Use of hygienic methods of protection during menstrual period has increased across states.
- Gender based violence still remains high, has increased in some states.
About National Family Health Survey (NFHS)
- The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India.
- The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), Government of India, designated the International Institute for Population Sciences(IIPS) Mumbai, as the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the survey.
- IIPS collaborated with a number of Field Organizations (FO) for survey implementation.
- Each FO was responsible for conducting survey activities in one or more states covered by the NFHS.
- Technical assistance for the NFHS was provided mainly by ICF (USA) and other organizations on specific issues.
- The funding for different rounds of NFHS has been provided by USAID, DFID, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, UNICEF, UNFPA, and MOHFW, GOI.