SPUTNIK LIGHT VACCINE
- February 7, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
SPUTNIK LIGHT VACCINE
TOPIC: Science & tech
Context- The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has given green signal to emergency use of single-dose Sputnik Light Covid vaccine in the country.
Sputnik Light Vaccine:
- Sputnik Light has been made by Russia’s Gamaleya Center, built on a human adenovirus vector platform.
- It is a single dose vaccine.
- It is similar to component-1 of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine that has been used in the India’s national vaccination programme.
- The Russian Direct Investment Fund said that the single-dose vaccine has demonstrated 70 per cent efﬁcacy against the disease caused by the Delta variant of Covid-19.
- Sputnik V used two different vector for each of the two shots in a course of vaccination. This provides immunity with a longer duration than vaccines using the same delivery mechanism for both shots.
- Adenoviruses (ADVs) are DNA viruses ranging from 70-90 nanometre in size, which induces many illnesses in humans like cold, respiratory infection etc.
- Adenoviruses are preferred for vaccines because their DNA is double stranded which makes them genetically more stable and the chances of them changing after injection are lower.
- Rabies vaccine is an adenovirus vaccine.
- Adenovirus vaccines are a type of viral vector vaccine.
- In this vaccine, adenovirus is used as a tool to deliver genes or vaccine antigens to the target host tissue.
- However, there are drawbacks of adenovirus vector vaccines like pre-existing immunity in humans, inflammatory responses etc.
Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO):
- The CDSCO is the Central Drug Authority for discharging functions assigned to the Central Government under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
- Major Functions:
- Regulatory control over the import of drugs, approval of new drugs and clinical trials.
- Approval of certain licences as Central Licence Approving Authority
Drug Controller General of India(DCGI)
- DCGI within CDSCO is responsible for approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, IV fluids, vaccines and sera in India.
- The DCGI is advised by the Drug Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) and the Drug Consultative Committee (DCC).
- It comes under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.