Daily Prelims Notes 1 December 2021
- December 1, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
1 December 2021
Table Of Contents
- Char Dham Devasthanam Management Act
- Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Model
- Omicron Cryptocurrency
- Kyhytysuka Sachicarum
- Gross domestic product (GDP)
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
- Polavaram project
- Nairobi Declaration
- Unemployment rate at 9.3%
- Financial aspect of 73rd and 74th Amendment
- Informal Economy
- Science Technology and Innovation (STI) Hubs
- Science During Freedom Struggle
Subject – Governance
Context – Chief Minister of Uttarakhand Pushkar Singh Dhami on Tuesday announced the withdrawal of the Char Dham Devasthanam Management Act.
- The Uttarakhand government in December 2019 had tabled the Uttarakhand Char Dham Shrine Management Bill, 2019, in the state Assembly.
- The bill was aimed at bringing the Char Dham of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri and 49 other temples under the purview of a proposed shrine board.
- The bill was passed in the Assembly and became the Uttarakhand Char Dham Devasthanam Management Act, 2019.
- Under the same Act, the government constituted the Uttarakhand Char Dham Devasthanam Board on January 15, 2020.
- As per the Act, the Chief Minister is the chairman whereas the minister for religious affairs is the vice-chairman of the board. Two MLAs of Gangotri and Yamunotri are members on the board along with the Chief Secretary. A senior IAS officer is the Chief Executive Officer.
- Under this board, there are 53 temples, including four shrines – Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri – and other temples located around these shrines.
- The shrine board was constituted as the highest governing body for the management of the temples with powers to frame policies, execute provisions of the Act, budget formulation and sanction expenditure, among others.
- The board was also empowered to give directions for the safe custody, prevention and management of funds, valuable securities, jewellery and properties vested in the temples.
- Before the constitution of the Board, the Shri Badrinath-Shri Kedarnath Act, 1939 was in place for the management of two shrines – Badrinath and Kedarnath – and Shri Badrinath- Shri Kedarnath Mandir Samiti for 45 temples. The Samiti was chaired by a government-appointed person whereas an official of all India service used to be the CEO.
- In Gangotri and Yamunotri, management of the shrines was earlier in the control of local trusts and the government was not getting any share from the donations made by devotees.
- All the decisions related to utilization of the donations, funds and development works in and around those 45 temples including Badrinath and Kedarnath were taken by that committee and the government did not intervene. But through the Devasthanam board, the government tried to take control over the financial and policy decisions.
Subject – Economy
Context – The Army’s ambitious plan for modernisation of the Army Base Workshops (ABWs) and implementation of ‘Government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO)’ model is “delayed” and the original timeline for implementing the system lapsed in December 2019, the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) said in its report tabled in the Parliament.
- The GOCO model was one of the recommendations of the Lt. Gen. DB Shekatkar (Retd.) committee to enhance combat capability and re-balancing defence expenditure.
- In GOCO model, the assets owned by government will be operated by the private industries.
- Under the GOCO model, the private companies need not make investments on land, machinery and other support systems.
- The missions are set by government and the private sectors are given full independence in implementing the missions using their best practices.
- The main advantage of the model is that the targets are achieved in lesser time frame. Also, it will boost competitiveness among the private entities paving way to newer technologies.
- The service provider should be an Indian registered company with at least 10 years of working experience in related domains and have an average annual turnover of ₹50 crore for each of the last three financial years.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Omicron cryptocurrency price shoots up 10 times in two days
- A relatively lesser known cryptocurrency token named after the Greek letter Omicron saw its price surge more than 10 times in a matter of two days outperforming top digital currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, soon after the World Health Organization (WHO) named the latest Covid-19 variant of concern Omicron.
- The WHO is following the Greek alphabet to name significant Covid-19 variants, and the next Greek letter Pi also has a cryptocurrency named after it.
Subject – Environment
Context – An international team of researchers has discovered a new marine reptile. The specimen, a metre-long skull, has been named Kyhytysuka sachicarum.
- An international team of researchers has discovered a new marine reptile. The specimen, a metre-long skull, has been named Kyhytysuka sachicarum.
- The name translates to ‘the one that cuts with something sharp’ in an indigenous language from the region in central Colombia where the fossil was found, to honour the ancient Muisca culture that existed there for millennia.
Subject – Economy
Context – Economy grows robust 8.4% in Q2
- Gross domestic product (GDP) is the single standard indicator used across the globe to indicate the health of a nation’s economy: one single number that represents the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific period.
- India’s GDP is calculated with two different methods, one based on economic activity (at factor cost), and the second on expenditure (at market prices).
- The factor cost method assesses the performance of eight different industries.
- The expenditure-based method indicates how different areas of the economy are performing, such as trade, investments, and personal consumption.
- Further calculations are made to arrive at nominal GDP (using the current market price) and real GDP (inflation-adjusted). Among the four released numbers, the GDP at factor cost is the most commonly followed figure and reported in the media.
- The Central Statistics Office under the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation is responsible for macroeconomic data gathering and statistical record keeping.
- Its processes involve conducting an annual survey of industries and compilation of various indexes such as the Industrial Production Index (IPI) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
- The Central Statistics Office coordinates with various federal and state government agencies and departments to collect and compile the data required to calculate the GDP and other statistics.
- Similarly, production-related data used for calculating IPI is sourced from the Industrial Statistics Unit of the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- All the required data points are collected and aggregated at the Central Statistics Office and used to arrive at GDP numbers.
The Factor Cost Figure
- The factor cost figure is calculated by collecting data for the net change in value for each sector during a particular time period.
- The following eight industry sectors are considered in this cost:
- Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
- Mining and quarrying
- Electricity, gas, water supply, and other utility services
- Trade, hotels, transport, communication, and broadcasting
- Financial, real estate, and professional services
- Public administration, defense, and other services.
The Expenditure Figure
- The expenditure (at market prices) method involves summing the domestic expenditure on final goods and services across various streams during a particular time period.
- It includes consideration of expenses towards household consumption, net investments (i.e., capital formation), government costs, and net trade (exports minus imports).
- The GDP numbers from the two methods may not match precisely, but they are close. The expenditure approach offers good insight into which parts contribute most to the Indian economy.
Subject – Agriculture
Context – Extreme weather: Over 5 million hectares of crop lost due to rain in 2021.
- The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA), which is one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) seeks to address issues regarding ‘Sustainable Agriculture’ in the context of risks associated with climate change by devising appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, equitable access to food resources, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at the national level.
- NMSA has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.
Mission Interventions: NMSA has following four (4) major programme components or activities:
- Rainfed Area Development (RAD): RAD adopts an area based approach for development and conservation of natural resources along with farming systems.
- On Farm Water Management (OFWM): OFWM focuses primarily on enhancing water use efficiency by promoting efficient on – farm water management technologies and equipment.
- Soil Health Management (SHM): SHM aims at promoting location as well as crop specific sustainable soil health management including residue management, organic farming practices by way of creating and linking soil fertility maps with macro – micro nutrient management, appropriate land use based on land capability, judicious application of fertilizers and minimizing the soil erosion/degradation.
- Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture: CCSAMMN provides creation and bidirectional (land/farmers to research/scientific establishments and vice versa) dissemination of climate change related information and knowledge by way of piloting climate change adaptation/mitigation research/model projects in the domain of climate smart sustainable management practices and integrated farming system suitable to local agro – climatic conditions.
Subject – Geography
Context – Polavaram — displaced and nowhere to go: Several await houses, compensation
- Polavaram Project is located in Andhra Pradesh on the river Godavari, near Polavaram village.
- It is a multi-purpose irrigation project as the project once completed will provide Irrigation benefits and will generate HydroElectric Power. In addition, this project will also supply drinking water.
- It will facilitate an inter-basin transfer to the Krishna river basin through its Right canal.
- It will also provide indirect benefits such as development of Pisciculture (breeding and rearing of fish), tourism and urbanisation.
- The Project has been accorded national project status by the union government in 2014 (under Section-90 of Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014).
- Its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Orissa States also.
Subject – Environment
Context – Nairobi Declaration set to fast track disaster risk reduction work
- The Nairobi Declaration, adopted by African ministers and heads of delegations November 19, 2021, underlined the need to deliver commitments on the Programme of Action (PoA) for implementing the Sendai Framework in Africa.
- This included the action plans under the PoA, to implement Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR), 2015-2030.
- The PoA outlines how Africa aims to implement SFDRR on the continent.
- Towards Disaster Risk-Informed Development for a Resilient Africa in a COVID-19 Transformed World was the theme of the virtual meet.
- It was organised by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), in collaboration with the African Union Commission and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development.
- Sendai Framework is aimed towards “substantial reduction in disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries”.
- Implementation of the Sendai Framework is expected to contribute to UN-mandated Sustainable Development Goals and to achieving Agenda 2063 commitment “The Africa we want”.
- Tunis declaration was adopted at the Africa Arab Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction held in Tunis from October 9-13, 2018.
Subject – Economy
Context – Unemployment rate at 9.3% in January-March 2021, shows NSO survey
- Unemployment rate for persons of age 15 years and above in urban areas rose to 9.3 per cent in January-March 2021 from 9.1 per cent in the same month of the previous year, showed a periodic labour force survey by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
- Joblessness or unemployment rate (UR) is defined as the percentage of unemployed persons in the labour force.
- Labour force refers to the part of the population which supplies or offers to supply labour for pursuing economic activities for the production of goods and services and therefore, includes both employed and unemployed persons.
- NSO launched PLFS in April 2017. On the basis of PLFS, a quarterly bulletin is brought out giving estimates of labour force indicators namely UR, Worker Population Ratio (WPR), Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR), distribution of workers by broad status in employment and industry of work in Current Weekly Status (CWS).
- The estimates of unemployed persons in CWS give an average picture of unemployment in a short period of seven days during the survey period.
- In the CWS approach, a person is considered unemployed if he/she did not work even for one hour on any day during the week but sought or was available for work at least for one hour on any day during the period.
- Labour force according to CWS is the number of persons either employed or unemployed on an average in a week preceding the date of survey.
- LFPR is defined as the percentage of population in the labour force.
To know more about Unemployment, please refer September 2021 DPN.
Subject – Polity
Context – Release of ₹8,453.92 crore to 19 States, as a health grant to rural and urban local bodies (ULBs)
- In early November 2021, a potentially game-changing and transformative development took place— the release of ₹8,453.92 crore to 19 States, as a health grant to rural and urban local bodies (ULBs), by the Department of Expenditure, the Ministry of Finance.
- This allocation has been made as part of the health grant of ₹70,051 crore which is to be released over five years, from FY2021-22 to FY2025- 26, as recommended by the Fifteenth Finance Commission.
- The grant is earmarked to plug identified gaps in the primary healthcare infrastructure in rural and urban settings.
- It would be 2.3% of the total health expenditure (both public and private spending together) of ₹5,66,644 crore in India and 5.7% of the annual government health expenditure (Union and State combined) of nearly ₹2,31,104 crore (both figures for 2017-18), the most recent financial year for which national health accounts data are available.
To know about Grant in Aid for Rural Local Bodies, please refer September 2021 DPN.
Subject – Economy
Context – According to a recent State Bank of India (SBI) Research report, the informal economy in India has been shrinking since 2018.
- According to a recent State Bank of India (SBI) Research report, the informal economy in India has been shrinking since 2018.
- The report claims that the share of the informal sector is just 15-20% in 2021 compared to 52.4% in 2018.
- Informal economy represents enterprises that are not registered, where employers do not provide social security to employees.
- It is characterized as a range of economic units which are mainly owned and operated by individuals and employ one or more employees on a continuous basis.
- It includes farmers, agricultural labourers, owners of small enterprises and people working in those enterprises and also the self-employed who do not have any hired workers.
- National Accounts Statistics (NAS) defines the unorganised sector in addition to the unincorporated proprietary or partnership enterprises, including enterprises run by cooperative societies, trust, private and limited companies.
- The informal sector can, therefore, be considered as a subset of the unorganised sector.
- According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey, over 90 per cent of workers in India are informal workers. Out of these, those engaged in rural areas workers are significantly more than urban areas workers.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Union Minister Dr Jitendra says, seven Science Technology and Innovation (STI) Hubs for ST established during the last two years in different regions of the country
- Science Technology and Innovation (STI) Hubs are being established by the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
- They aim to develop, nurture and ensure the delivery of appropriate and relevant technologies for inclusive socio-economic development through creation of sustainable livelihoods for the SC and ST population in tune to their growing aspirations.
- To address the weakest linkages in the predominant livelihood systems through Science & Technology (S&T) interventions;
- Creation of social enterprises based on the strengths in livelihood systems; and
- To improve the Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) through inputs of S&T for strengthening the livelihoods.
Subject – History
Context – Indian scientists helped India in gaining Independence, sustained it for 75 years: Jitendra Singh
- Mahatma Gandhi was one of the greatest scientific strategists who, through his weapon of Non-Violence, waged scientific battle against British subjugation and aggression.
- Bapu and many of his contemporaries had also adopted psychological techniques to put the British adversaries on the defensive.
- Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was an eminent biologist, physicist, botanist and an early writer of science fiction.
- “Vision of ‘Self-reliance’ during the colonial era encouraged Indian scientists and patriots to establish their own scientific institutions and industries.
- Dr Mahendralal Sircar established the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in 1876.
- Acharya PC Ray established The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works in 1901 which was the foundation stone of indigenous industry in our country.
Sir Asutosh Mookerjee
- Sir Asutosh Mookerjee (29 June 1864 – 25 May 1924) is considered to be the harbinger of modern science in India.
- He was the first Indian to initiate research in modern science, first Indian to publish a paper in a Journal and was arguably, the most illustrious figure in Indian education.
- He was the second Indian Vice Chancellor (VC) of the Calcutta University and occupied the post for ten years.
- He was the founder of the Science College of Calcutta University.
- He was president of the first session of the Indian Science Congress (1914) and the main architect of science education and research, in modern India.