Daily Prelims Notes 14 December 2021
- December 14, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
14 December 2021
Table Of Contents
- Pakke Tiger Reserve
- Exotic Animals
- Energy Conservation Day
- Pension for Judges
- Climate Change-Related Discussions at the UN Security Council
- Central Asian Nations
- NCPCR portal ‘Bal Swaraj’
Subject – Environment
Context – Over two decades since it was first documented in China, a rarely seen butterfly species has been sighted in Arunachal Pradesh.
|Pakke Tiger Reserve, also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve|
|East – Papum Reserve Forest|
South – Assam’s Nameri National Park
West – Doimara Reserve Forest and Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary
North – Shergaon Forest Division
|It is bounded by Bhareli or Kameng River in the west and north, and by Pakke River in the east.|
The main perennial streams in the area are the Nameri, Khari and Upper Dikorai.
|It is known for its amazing sightings of four resident hornbill species.|
To know about Kaiser-i-Hind Butterfly, please refer November 2021 DPN.
Subject – Environment
Context – Recent trends suggest that smugglers of exotic wildlife species might be trying to take advantage of the advisory brought out by the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC) to regulate the growing market of exotic animals in the country.
- The term exotic does not have a set definition but it usually refers to a wild animal or one that is more unusual and rarer than normal domesticated pets like cats or dogs.
- These are those species which are not usually native to an area and are introduced to an area by humans.
- With a complete ban on wildlife trade of Indian species, there has been a surge in demand in India, for exotic species from different parts of the world, noted the Smuggling in India Report 2019-2020, published by the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI).
- Exotic animals are not listed under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which makes it difficult to convict the smugglers.
- ‘Exotic live species’ will mean animals named under Appendices I, II and III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora.
- Currently, it is the Directorate-General of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, that oversees the trade of ‘exotic wildlife species’.
- The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau is an organisation that is tasked with monitoring illegal trade.
Provisions Related to Illegal Trade of Animals
- Illegally traded exotic animals are confiscated under Section 111 of the Customs Act, 1962 which is read with the provision of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Foreign Trade Policy (Import-Export Policy) of India.
- Also, Sections 48 and 49 of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 prohibit trade or commerce in wild animals, animal articles or trophies.
Advisory on Importing Live Exotic Animals
- Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has issued an advisory to streamline and formalise the process of importing live exotic animals.
- Many exotic species of birds, reptiles and amphibians are imported into India for commercial purposes.
- For import and disclosure of exotic animals and their progeny already in India.
- A person trying to import a live exotic animal will have to submit an application for grant of a licence to the Director-General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- Earlier, these imports were happening though the DGFT but they were beyond the purview of the forest departments and the chief wildlife wardens were not aware of them.
- The importer will also have to attach a No Objection Certificate (NOC) of the chief wildlife warden of the state concerned along with the application.
- For those people who have already imported exotic animals, a declaration will have to be made within six months.
- However, if the declaration is made after six months, documents related to the provenance of the animal will have to be submitted.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) is part of a multilateral treaty that includes plant, animals and birds under varying categories of threat of extinction and which will be jointly protected by members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- India is a signatory to CITES.
10 Rare and Exotic Wildlife Species Found In India
- Greater One-horned Rhinoceros
- Asiatic Lion
- Snow Leopard
- Black Buck
- Lion-tailed Macaque
- Red Panda
- Kashmir Red Stag (Hangul)
- Indian Bison (Gaur)
- Asian Elephant
Subject – Environment
Context – In 2010, India had 31.3Mha of natural forest, extending over 11% of its land area. By 2020, it lost 132kha of the natural forest, equivalent to 67.3Mt of CO₂ of emissions, according to the Global Forest Watch, which monitors forests and provides information on changing patterns worldwide.
- With an intent to combat high pollution levels and a sharp rise in carbon emissions, the Indian government has been pursuing reforestation through schemes such as the National Mission on Green India, the National Afforestation Programme, compensatory afforestation, and plantation drives across states.
- In the Union Budget 2020-21, the overall allocation for the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, increased from Rs. 26.5 billion in the revised estimate of 2019-20 to Rs. 31 billion for 2020-21.
- Furthermore, at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of Parties (COP 2015), India, under the Bonn Challenge, committed to restoring 13 million hectares (Mha) of degraded and deforested land by 2020 and an additional 8 Mha by 2030.
National Mission on Green India
- The National Mission for a Green India or the commonly called Green India Mission (GIM), is one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).
- It was launched in February, 2014 with the objective to safeguard the biological resources of our nation and associated livelihoods against the peril of adverse climate change and to recognise the vital impact of forestry on ecological sustainability, biodiversity conservation and food-, water- and livelihood-security.
- It aims at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover and responding to climate change through adaptation and mitigation measures. It envisages a holistic view of greening that extends beyond tree planting.
- At the national level implementation is done by the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
- The State Forest Development Agency to guide the mission at the state level.
- At the district level, the implementation to be done by the Forest Development Agency.
National Afforestation Programme
- The overall objective of the National Afforestation Programme (NAP) scheme is ecological restoration of degraded forests and to develop the forest resources with peoples’ participation, with focus on improvement in livelihoods of the forest-fringe communities, especially the poor.
- The scheme is implemented by three tier institutional setup through the State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) at the state level, Forest Development Agency (FDA) at the forest division level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at village level.
- NAP is a centrally sponsored scheme which is implemented with the fund sharing pattern of 60: 40 percent between Centre and States wherein the sharing pattern for Northeastern and hilly States is 90:10.
- The Miyawaki method, developed by a Japanese botanist after whom it is named, involves planting saplings in small areas, causing them to “fight” for resources and grow nearly 10 times quicker.
- It originated in Japan, and is now increasingly adopted in other parts of the world. It has revolutionised the concept of urban afforestation by turning backyards into mini-forests.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – Log4j vulnerability has tech firms worried
- A new vulnerability named Log4Shell is being touted as one of the worst cybersecurity flaws to have been discovered.
- The vulnerability is based on an open-source logging library used in most applications by enterprises and even government agencies.
- The exploits for this vulnerability are already being tested by hackers, according to several reports, and it grants them access to an application, and could potentially let them run malicious software on a device or servers.
Subject – Environment
Context – In India, National Energy Conservation Day is observed every year on 14th December to raise awareness about the significance of energy and the need of conserving energy by using less energy.
- The National Energy Conservation Day is organized on 14th December every year by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) with an aim to showcase India’s achievements in energy efficiency and conservation.
- Energy conservation is an important factor in lessening climate change. It helps the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy.
- Energy conservation is frequently the most cost-effective solution to energy shortages, as well as a more ecologically friendly option than increasing energy output.
- The National Energy Conservation Awards are given on the occasion.
- It is different from the term ‘energy efficiency’, which is using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function.
Energy Conservation Act, 2001
- The Act provides for the legal framework, institutional arrangement and a regulatory mechanism at the Central and State level to embark upon energy efficiency drive in the country.
- Five major provisions of EC Act relate to
- Designated Consumers,
- Standard and Labelling of Appliances,
- Energy Conservation Building Codes,
- Creation of Institutional Set up (BEE)
- Establishment of Energy Conservation Fund.
- The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) was set up as the statutory body in 2002 at the central level to facilitate the implementation of the EC Act. It functions under the Ministry of Power.
National Energy Conservation Awards
- On this day, National Energy Conservation Awards are given away to honour innovation and accomplishments in energy conservation by industries, buildings, and manufacturers of BEE star labelled appliances, as well as raise awareness that energy conservation is an important part of India’s response to reducing global warming through energy savings.
- The awards also honour their demonstrated commitment to energy efficiency and conservation.
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
- The BEE is a statutory body established through the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 under the Union Ministry of Power.
- It assists in developing policies and strategies with the primary objective of reducing the energy intensity of the Indian economy.
- BEE coordinates with designated consumers, designated agencies, and other organizations to identify and utilize the existing resources and infrastructure, in performing its functions.
Subject – Polity
Context – Rajya Sabha approves Bill on enhanced pension for retired judges
- The High Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act, 1954, and the Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act, 1958 regulate the salaries and conditions of service of the judges of High Courts and the Supreme Court of India.
- The salaries and allowances of CJI and Supreme Court judges are charged from Consolidated Fund of India.
- The salaries and allowances of state high court judges including chief justices are charged from Consolidated Fund of State.
- Retired Judges of SC and all HCs are entitled to pension which is drawn from Consolidated Fund of India.
- Through the High Court and Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Amendment Act, 2009, section 16B and section 17B were respectively inserted (in the 1954 Act and 1958 Act).
- The 2009 act aims to provide that every retired Judge or after his death, the family will be entitled to an additional quantum of pension or family pension in accordance with the scale specified therein.
- Accordingly, the additional quantum of pension to retired Judges of the High Court and Supreme Court is being sanctioned on completing the age of 80 years, 85 years, 90 years, 95 years and 100 years, as the case may be.
- The additional quantum increases with age (from 20% to 100% of the pension or family pension).
Subject – Environment
Context – India on Monday voted against a draft resolution seeking to create a formal space for climate change-related discussions at the UN Security Council.
- India and Russia were the only countries to have opposed the draft resolution; China abstained.
- The resolution fell through following a veto from Russia.
- India, China and Russia had been opposing this move from the beginning, arguing that Security Council interventions on climate change will undermine the UNFCCC process, and provide disproportionate influence to a handful of developed countries on climate change decision-making.
- The draft resolution, sponsored by Ireland and Nigeria, sought to enable the Security Council to take up routine discussions on climate change from the perspective of its impact on peace and conflicts worldwide.
- As of now, the appropriate UN forum to discuss all matters on climate change is the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), whose more than 190 members meet multiple times every year, including at a two-week annual conference towards the end of the year.
- United Nations resolutions are formal expressions of the opinion or will of United Nations organs.
- A United Nations Security Council resolution is a United Nations resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council (UNSC).
- The UN Charter specifies (in Article 27) that a draft resolution on non-procedural matters is adopted if nine or more of the fifteen Council members vote for the resolution, and if it is not vetoed by any of the five permanent members.
- Draft resolutions on “procedural matters” can be adopted on the basis of an affirmative vote by any nine Council members.
- The term “resolution” does not appear in the text of the United Nations Charter.
- Resolutions by the Security Council are legally binding.
- If the council cannot reach consensus or a passing vote on a resolution, they may choose to produce a non-binding presidential statement instead of a Resolution. These are adopted by consensus. They are meant to apply political pressure—a warning that the Council is paying attention and further action may follow.
Subject – Geography
Context – Glacier loss pushing India’s mountain region towards water insecurity
|Parkachik Glacier||Kargil, Ladakh|
|Machoi Glacier||Drass, Ladakh|
|Thajiwas Glacier (Sonamarg)||Kasmir valley|
|Nanda Devi Glacier||Uttarakhand|
Subject – IR
Context – Central Asian leaders invited for R-Day
- The Central Asia region (CA) comprises the countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
Subject – Polity
Context – Help children left homeless by pandemic: SC
- The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), in furtherance to its function as a monitoring authority under section 109 of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 and in view of the growing problem related to children affected by COVID-19, has devised an online tracking portal “Bal Swaraj (COVID-Care link)” for child in need of care and protection.
- This portal of the Commission has been created with a purpose for online tracking and digital real time monitoring mechanism of children who are in need of care and protection.
- The Commission has extended the use of this portal for tracking children who have lost both its parents or either of the parent during COVID-19 and provided a link under the name of “COVID-Care” for uploading of data of such children by the concerned officer/department on the portal.
To know about National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), please refer November 2021 DPN.