Daily Prelims Notes 16 December 2021
- December 16, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
16 December 2021
Table Of Contents
- Sixth Schedule
- Vijay Diwas 2021
- Marriage Age of Women from 18 to 21
- 2020 heat record in Siberian town
- Rupee Depreciation
- Speaker of Lok Sabha
- UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages in India
- Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
- Adjournment motion
- National Voters Service Portal (NVSP)
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana
Subject – Polity
Context – BJP MP from Ladakh demanded that the region be included in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution to safeguard land, employment, and cultural identity of the local population
- The Sixth Schedule under Article 244 provides for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions — Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) — that have some legislative, judicial, and administrative autonomy within a state.
- ADCs have up to 30 members with a term of five years, and can make laws, rules and regulations with regard to land, forest, water, agriculture, village councils, health, sanitation, village- and town-level policing, inheritance, marriage and divorce, social customs and mining, etc.
- The Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam is an exception with more than 40 members and the right to make laws on 39 issues.
- The Sixth Schedule applies to the North-eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram (three Councils each), and Tripura (one Council).
Why does Ladakh want to be part of the Sixth Schedule?
- Buddhist-dominated Leh district had long demanded UT status because it felt neglected by the erstwhile state government, which was dominated by politicians from Kashmir and Jammu.
- There was much enthusiasm initially, mostly in Leh, after the August 5, 2019 decisions that created two new Union Territories. The enthusiasm waned as it was understood that while the UT of J&K would have a legislature, the UT of Ladakh would not.
- There had been four MLAs from the region in the erstwhile J&K Assembly; the administration of the region is now completely in the hands of bureaucrats.
- To many in Ladakh, the government now looks even more distant than Srinagar.
- Also, the changed domicile policy in Jammu and Kashmir has raised fears in the region about its own land, employment, demography, and cultural identity.
- The UT has two Hill councils in Leh and Kargil, but neither is under the Sixth Schedule. Their powers are limited to collection of some local taxes such as parking fees and allotment and use of land vested by the Centre.
Can Ladakh be included in Sixth Schedule?
- In September 2019, the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes recommended the inclusion of Ladakh under the Sixth Schedule, noting that the new UT was predominantly tribal (more than 97%), people from other parts of the country had been restricted from purchasing or acquiring land there, and its distinct cultural heritage needed preservation.
- Notably, no region outside the Northeast has been included in the Sixth Schedule.
- In fact, even in Manipur, which has predominantly tribal populations in some places, the autonomous councils are not included in the Sixth Schedule.
- Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh, which are totally tribal, are also not in the Sixth Schedule.
- Ladakh’s inclusion in the Sixth Schedule would be difficult. The Constitution is very clear, Sixth Schedule is for the Northeast. For tribal areas in the rest of the country, there is the Fifth Schedule.
Subject – IR
Context – To commemorate its victory over Pakistan during the 1971 war, India celebrates Vijay Diwas on December 16 every year as a tribute to the success of the Indian army.
- To commemorate its victory over Pakistan during the 1971 war, India celebrates Vijay Diwas on December 16 every year as a tribute to the success of the Indian army. This war led to the creation of Bangladesh. Today, marks fifty years of the war.
- After India’s independence, Pakistan was formed in two territories, east and west Pakistan.
- The Bengalis in the east were highly discriminated and their Bengali language wasn’t accepted. There were economic disparities between the two regions, and the power helmed by west Pakistan had created tensions.
- In 1970, the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won the elections wherein the Pakistan People’s Party neglected to hand over the power.
- Later in mid 1971, Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. As violence started erupting, many refugees began entering India.
- The war between India and Pakistan started when Pakistan launched air strikes on 11 Indian air bases. In retaliation to this attack, former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian army to launch war against Pakistan, which India won after fighting for 13 days, resulting in the birth of Bangladesh.
- Pakistan surrendered to the Indian army finally and this day is also observed as ‘BijoyDibos’ in Bangladesh.
Subject – Governance
Context – Union Cabinet Wednesday passed a proposal to raise the legal age of marriage for women from 18 to 21 years — the same as men.
- Following the Cabinet’s approval, the Government will introduce an amendment to the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, and consequently bring amendments to the Special Marriage Act and personal laws such as the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.
- It was based on recommendations submitted to Niti Aayog in December 2020 by the Centre’s task force, headed by Jaya Jaitly, which was constituted to examine “matters pertaining to age of motherhood, imperatives of lowering MMR (Maternal Mortality Rate), improvement of nutritional levels and related issues”.
- Section 5(iii) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 sets 18 years as the minimum age for the bride and 21 for the groom.
- The Special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 also prescribe 18 and 21 years as the minimum age of consent for marriage for women and men, respectively.
- Women’s age of marriage was increased from 15 years to 18 years in 1978, by amending the erstwhile Sharda Act of 1929.
Subject – Environment
Context – WMO confirms 2020 heat record in Siberian town
- Verkhoyansk, a town in Siberia, recorded a temperature of 38 degrees Celsius on June 20, 2020. It was then pushed as the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic region.
- The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has now confirmed that the Siberian town, 115 kilometres north of the Arctic Circle, did experience the highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic region.
- The Arctic region is warming at more than twice the rate as the rest of the world, mainly because of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. The increased rate of warming is because of a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification, wherein the melting ice hastens the process of warming by exposing areas that are not good at reflecting back heat into the atmosphere.
- The impact of warming on the region is such that the WMO has added a new category — “highest recorded temperature at or north of 66.5⁰C, the Arctic Circle” — to its international Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes.
- Is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.
- It has been a part of Russia since the latter half of the 16th century, after the Russians conquered lands east of the Ural Mountains.
- Siberia is vast and sparsely populated.
- The river Yenisey divides Siberia into two parts, Western and Eastern.
- Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the northern parts of Mongolia and China.
- Siberia is known worldwide primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C.
- It is geographically situated in Asia; however, due to it being colonized and incorporated into Russia, it is culturally and politically a part of Europe.
International Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes
- The WMO Archive maintains official records of the world, hemispheric and regional extremes associated with a number of specific types of weather.
- Presently, the Archive lists extremes for temperature, pressure, rainfall, hail, wind, and lightning as well as two specific types of storms, tornadoes and tropical cyclones.
- One common weather variable, snowfall, is not listed because of potential issues in consistent official measurement around the world.
Subject – Polity
Context – Pre-budget consultation: Agri experts for MSP based on realistic cost, subsidised diesel
- Budget is the annual financial statement of a government which lays out fiscal roadmap for the country for the next one year. It is prepared by the ministry of finance in consultation with Niti Aayog and other concerned ministries.
- The Budget division of the department of economic affairs (DEA) in the finance ministry is the nodal body responsible for producing the Budget.
- Budget-making process starts in August-September, that is, about six months prior to its date of presentation.
- It needs to be passed by both houses of Parliament before beginning of the financial year, that is, April 1.
- The finance minister holds pre-Budget meetings with various stakeholders to know about their proposals and demands. These stakeholders include state representatives, bankers, agriculturists, economists and trade unions.
- Once the pre-Budget consultations are done, the finance minister takes the final call on all demands. It is also discussed with the Prime Minister before finalisation.
Subject – Economy
Context – FPI outflow, fears over US Fed taper pull Re below 76-mark
- Currency depreciation is a fall in the value of a currency in a floating exchange rate system.
- In a floating exchange rate system, market forces (based on demand and supply of a currency) determine the value of a currency.
- Rupee depreciation means that rupee has become less valuable with respect to dollar.
- Some of the factors that influence the value of a currency:
- Interest rates
- Trade deficit
- Macroeconomic policies
- Equity market
- Currency depreciation increases a country’s export activity as its products and services become cheaper to buy.
- The RBI intervenes in the currency market to support the rupee as a weak domestic unit can increase a country’s import bill.
In News –
- The rupee fell below the 76 per US dollar level as foreign fund outflows intensified following global strengthening of the US dollar ahead of the US Federal Reserve meet.
- According to analysts, the rupee weakened as the dollar index surged after wholesale price in the US rose to record highs.
- The rupee fall is expected to push up import costs while exporters may benefit from the dollar’s rise.
- The rate hike could spur capital outflows from emerging markets like India and weigh on the local unit.
Subject – Polity
Context – The Speaker has ample power to quell disorderly behaviour, but thereafter, the House is the master
- The speaker of Lok Sabha is the chair person or presiding officer.
- The members of Lok Sabha elect speaker and deputy speaker from among its members after elections or when vacancy exists.
- To maintain independence of the office of speaker his salary on the consolidated Fund of India and the same is not subject to vote of Parliament.
- He is sixth in the Order of Precedence of Government of India.
- The speaker decides the agenda of discussions and has a casting vote (vote not in first place, but, only if tie exist).
- The Committees of the House function under the overall direction of the Speaker. He nominates the chairpersons of the committee.
- Committees like the Business Advisory Committee, the General Purposes Committee and the Rules Committee work directly under her Chairmanship
- The speaker has the power to adjourn or suspend the house/meetings if the quorum is not met. The Speaker ensures the discipline and decorum of the house. If the speaker finds the behaviour and a Member of Parliament is not good, he/she can punish the unruly members by suspending.
- The Speaker of Lok Sabha does not leave the office just after dissolution of the assembly. He continues to be in the office till the newly formed assembly takes its first meeting and elects the new Speaker.
- The final power to decide whether a particular bill is a Money Bill or not is vested in the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
- The Speaker of Lok Sabha presides over the joint sitting of both the Houses.
Removal from office:
- If no more a member of house; resigns by writing to deputy speaker; he is of unsound mind declared so by the court of law; if he is declared undischarged insolvent; if he is no longer the citizen of India;
- He is removed from the post of Speaker by passing a resolution by majority of the members of Lok Sabha. This is to note that during resolution for removal of Speaker, the Speaker is not in position to cast his vote even if there is tie.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – Durga Puja gets intangible cultural heritage tag
- This coveted list is made up of those intangible heritage elements that help demonstrate diversity of cultural heritage and raise awareness about its importance.
- The list was established in 2008 when the Convention for Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage came into effect.
- This list also encompasses living expressions and traditions. Intangible cultural heritage means the skills, knowledge, expressions, representations, practices – as well as the artifacts, objects, instruments, and cultural spaces associated with them that various groups, communities and in certain cases individuals recognize as a part of their cultural heritage.
- This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Its members are elected by State parties meeting in the United Nations General Assembly.
UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages in India
India, known for its heritage and cultural diversity, has 13 cultural heritages in UNESCO’s intangible cultural heritage list.
About Durga Puja –
- Durga Puja, also known as Durgotsava or Sharodotsava, is an annual Hindu festival originating in the Indian subcontinent which reveres and pays homage to the Hindu goddess Durga and is also celebrated because of Durga’s victory over Mahishasur.
- Durga Puja is a five-day festival which begins on the fifth night of the nine-day Navratri festival and ends on the tenth day, which is Dashami. During this time, people collectively worship and invoke Goddess Durga, who is regarded as the feminine energy of the cosmos, also known as ‘Shakti’.
- Though originating in West Bengal, which has the largest Bengali community in the country, the festival is celebrated in many other parts of India, and also the world.
- The festival is observed in the Indian calendar month of Ashwin, which corresponds to September–October in the Gregorian calendar.
- It is a classic fusion of religion and culture.
- Durga puja is an important festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – Indigenous efforts to make UAVs crosses a milestone
- The indigenous Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) development programme by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has crossed a milestone by reaching an altitude of 25,000 feet and an endurance of 10 hours.
- It has advanced capabilities and meets the requirements of the three Services.
- It technologically matches contemporary UAVs available and will also be cheaper than the imported ones.
- With some delays in development, the Rustom-2 last year successfully flew for eight hours at an altitude of 16,000 feet.
- It has been designed and developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), Bengaluru with production partners being the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd and the Bharat Electronics Limited.
- It is being developed to carry out surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) roles and is capable of carrying different combinations of advanced payload and capable of auto landing among others.
- High endurance UAVs are a priority requirement for the armed forces especially in the standoff with China in Eastern Ladakh.
- The armed forces rely heavily on the Israeli Searcher and Heron drones and need more such UAVs.
- Defence Minister Rajnath Singh had handed to the Home Ministry over a structural fire-fighting suit developed by DRDO’s Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety (CFEES), Delhi.
- The suit weighing 2.8 kg is an ensemble of several layers, with the outer layer being the most durable and protects against heat, flames, water, chemicals and also against cuts and abrasion, according to the DRDO.
- Such a suit has been developed for the first time in the country and meets European standards while at the same time lowering import costs.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Cabinet approves ₹76,000 crore push for semiconductor makers
- Semiconductor, any of a class of crystalline solids intermediate in electrical conductivity between a conductor and an insulator.
- Common elemental semiconductors are silicon and germanium. Common semiconductor compounds are such as gallium arsenide or indium antimonide.
- ICs(integrated circuits) and electronic discrete components such as diodes and transistors are made of semiconductors..
- Semiconductors were used only as two-terminal devices, such as rectifiers and photo diodes semiconductors are used in solar technology
- Used in 3D printing machines
- Temperature sensors which used in air conditioners are made with semiconductor devices.
- Semiconductors play a central role in the operation of bank ATMs, trains, the internet, communications and other parts of the social infrastructure, such as the medical network used for the care of elderly, among other things.
- Semiconductor devices are used in microchips in computer, calculator, solar plates and other electronics devices.
- The semiconductor technology have driven systems efficiency, miniaturization and energy savings, which in turn help to preserve the global environment in addition to achieving safe and comfortable life and to create prosperous future.
- Semiconductors have no requirement of filament heating so semiconductors device such as transistor takes place in almost all vacuum tube applications. Because of the filament vacuum tube requires heat for operation. Advantages
- Semiconductor devices are solid-state devices. So they are shockproof.
- Semiconductor devices are so small in size which makes it easily portable.
- It has Less cost than a vacuum tube.
- Semiconductor devices require less input power for operation.
- During the operation period, it does not make any noise. So we can see semiconductor devices are noise-free devices.
- Semiconductor materials have a longer lifespan. They have an almost unlimited life.
Subject – Polity
Context – Congress leader Rahul Gandhi set the tone of the Opposition’s aggressive stance as he submitted a notice of an adjournment motion seeking the dismissal of Mr. Mishra
- It is introduced in the Parliament to draw attention of the House to a definite matter of urgent public importance, and needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.
- As it interrupts the normal business of the House, it is regarded as an extraordinary device. It involves an element of censure against the government and hence Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this
- The discussion on an adjournment motion should last for not less than two hours and thirty minutes.
- The right to move a motion for an adjournment of the business of the House is subject to the following restrictions:
- It should raise a matter which is definite, factual, urgent and of public importance;
- It should not cover more than one matter;
- It should be restricted to a specific matter of recent occurrence and should not be framed in general terms;
- It should not raise a question of privilege;
- It should not revive discussion on a matter that has been discussed in the same session;
- It should not deal with any matter that is under adjudication by court; and
- It should not raise any question that can be raised on a distinct motion.
Subject – Polity
Context – Flaw on voters’ portal fixed, possible data leak averted
- In a bid to provide all possible support services to electors with the help of IT tools, the Election Commission of India (ECI) created the National Voter Service Portal (NVSP).
- The portal was launched on the occasion of National Voters’ Day in 2015. National Voters’ Day is celebrated on 25th January every year.
Aim of NVSP
- The sole aim of NVSP is to provide single window services to electors.
Services offered in NVSP
- Search the name in Electoral List.
- Deletion/objection in electoral roll
- Correction of entries in electoral roll
- Application for transposition of entry in electoral roll
- Apply online for new registration
- Apply online for registration of overseas voter
- Apply online for Enrolment, Modification, Deletion and change of address in electoral roll
- Track Status of applications
- Print vote information slip
- View details of Polling booth, Assembly Constituency and Parliamentary constituency, Booth Level officer, Electoral Registration Officer and other Election officer.
- View links to State / UT CEO offices websites
- View awareness information on polling processes, Electronic Voting Machine (EVM), etc
Subject – Government Schemes
Context – Nod to extend irrigation scheme for five years
- PMKSY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) launched in 2015. Centre- States will be 75:25 per cent. In the case of the north-eastern region and hilly states, it will be 90:10.
- Its objectives are:
- Convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level,
- To expand the cultivable area under assured irrigation (HarKhetkopani),
- To improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water,
- To enhance the adoption of precision-irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop),
- To enhance recharge of aquifers and introduce sustainable water conservation practices by exploring the feasibility of reusing treated municipal based water for peri-urban agriculture and attract greater private investment in a precision irrigation system.
- It is formulated by amalgamating ongoing schemes:
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) -Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation.
- Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) – Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development.
- On-Farm Water Management (OFWM) – Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC).
- Implementation – Decentralised implementation through State Irrigation Plan and District Irrigation Plan.
- KrishiSinchayeeYojana duration was for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20) with a financial outlay of Rs.50,000 crores.