Daily Prelims Notes 16 November 2021
- November 16, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
16 November 2021
Table Of Contents
- LGBT rights in India
- Factors of Delhi air pollution
- Tax devolution to States
- Covid-19 antibodies found in breast milk of vaccinated infected moms
- Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Hallmarking
- Food Miles
- Climate change and Virus
- Light Combat Helicopter
- Special Court for MPs and MLAs
- Constitution Bench
- National Interlinking of Rivers Authority (NIRA)
- Chandragupta Maurya
- Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism
- Transfer of two pairs of lions to Sanjay Gandhi National Park
- ICMR moots change in cattle rearing practices- shift from coal
- Adaptation Fund (AF)
Subject – Governance
Context – Milestone for gay rights: SC Collegium picks SaurabhKirpal for Delhi High Court
- Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in India have been evolving rapidly in recent years.
- The country has repealed its colonial-era laws that directly discriminated against homosexual and transgender identities and also explicitly interpreted Article 15 of the Constitution to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. But many legal protections have not been provided for, including same-sex marriage.
- In 2018, in the landmark decision of Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, the Supreme Court of India decriminalised consensual homosexual intercourse by reading down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code and excluding consensual homosexual sex between adults from its ambit
- SC in its judgement specifically said that the Right to Privacy and the protection of sexual orientation lie at the core of the fundamental rights guaranteed by Article 14 (Equality before Law), Article 15 (Prohibition of discrimination on the basis of race, religion, caste, sex, place of birth), Article 21 (Protection of life and liberty) and Article 19 (Freedom of expression) of the Constitution.
- Supreme Court stated that the ‘Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Law in Relation to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity’ should be applied as a part of Indian law.
- Yogyakarta Principles recognise freedom of sexual orientation and gender identity as part of Human Rights. They were outlined in 2006 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia by a distinguished group of International Human Right experts.
International Developments for LGBT Community:
- India: In a historic judgment, the Supreme Court of India ruled that consensual adult gay sex is not a crime saying sexual orientation is natural and human beings have no control over it.
- Ireland: Ireland legalized same-sex marriage. The country, which had decriminalized homosexuality in 1993, became the first country to allow same-sex marriage at a national level by popular vote.
- USA: US Supreme Court ruled that same-sex marriage was legal.
- Nepal: Nepal legalized homosexuality in 2007 and the new Constitution of the country to gives many rights to the LGBT community.
Subject – Environment
Context – SC says urban factors, not stubble burning, to blame
- The Supreme Courtsaid the “cat is out of the bag” to prove that urban factors like construction activity, industrial emission, vehicular exhaust and road dust are actually the major causes of pollution in the Capital and not stubble burning.
- Farm fires in neighbouring Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh contribute only 10 percent to the pollution.
Subject – Economy
Context – Capex push: Tax devolution to states front-loaded
- Typically, the tax devolution to states is done in 14 instalments in a year and the adjustments as per the revised estimate are usually done in March.
- Union finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman said the tax devolution to states would be front-loaded to enable them to increase the pace of capital spending. On November 22, an amount of Rs 95,082 crore would be released to states, instead of half that amount which is due as per the Budget.
- To improve the liquidity of states, the Centre has already released the entire back-to-back loan component of Rs 1.59 lakh crore to the states in lieu of shortfall in release of GST compensation during the current fiscal.
- This was in addition to the compensation released to the states from the designated cess kitty of Rs 60,000 crore.
To know about Capex, kindly refer September 2021 DPN.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Covid-19 antibodies found in breast milk of vaccinated, infected moms
- Mothers who contract Covid infection and those who get vaccinated against the disease produce breast milk with active SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, according to a study.
- However, the study does not imply that breast milk antibodies can provide protection against Covid for nursing children.
- Mothers who had disease-acquired immunity produced high levels of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against the virus in breast milk, while vaccine-acquired immunity produced robust Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies.
- Both antibodies provided neutralisation against SARSCoV-2, the first time such evidence has been discovered for both IgA and IgG antibodies.
- A neutralising antibody defends a cell from an infectious particle by preventing any effect it has biologically.
- Breast milk from both mothers with Covid infection, and from mothers receiving mRNA vaccination, contained these active antibodies that were able to neutralise the virus.
- The results showed that these antibodies exist for three months after infection.
- However, it is not yet shown whether these breast milk antibodies can provide protection against Covid for nursing children.
- The study does not imply that children would be protected from illness, and breast milk antibodies may not be a substitute for vaccination for infants and children, once approved.
Types of antibodies –
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA): It’s found in the linings of the respiratory tract and digestive system, as well as in saliva (spit), tears, and breast milk.
- Immunoglobulin G (IgG): This is the most common antibody. It’s in blood and other body fluids, and protects against bacterial and viral infections. IgG can take time to form after an infection or immunization.
- Immunoglobulin M (IgM): Found mainly in blood and lymph fluid, this is the first antibody the body makes when it fights a new infection.
- Immunoglobulin E (IgE): Normally found in small amounts in the blood. There may be higher amounts when the body overreacts to allergens or is fighting an infection from a parasite.
- Immunoglobulin D (IgD): This is the least understood antibody, with only small amounts in the blood.
Subject – Economy
Context – At WTO meet, India to push for TRIPS waiver of Covid-19 health products
- India will continue to push for inclusion of temporary waiver of Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) provisions for Covid-related medical products in the WTO response package being worked out, as its domestic vaccine and pharmaceutical industry is on board.
- India is insisting that the WTO response package that is being worked out to meet Covid challenges must necessarily include provisionson temporary waiver of TRIPS obligations for Covid health products, including vaccines, as mentioned in the proposal by India and South Africa that has been co-sponsored by 64 WTO members.
- The WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property (IP).
- It plays a central role in facilitating trade in knowledge and creativity, in resolving trade disputes over IP, and in assuring WTO members the latitude to achieve their domestic policy objectives.
- It frames the IP system in terms of innovation, technology transfer and public welfare.
- The Agreement is a legal recognition of the significance of links between IP and trade and the need for a balanced IP system.
TRIPS Agreement & Indian Law
- The TRIPS agreement was negotiated in 1995 at the WTO, it requires all its signatory countries to enact domestic law.
- It guarantees minimum standards of IP protection.
- Such legal consistency enables innovators to monetise their intellectual property in multiple countries.
- The TRIPS Agreement is also described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement.
- It is applicable to all WTO members.
- In 2001, the WTO signed the Doha Declaration, which clarified that in a public health emergency, governments could compel companies to license their patents to manufacturers, even if they did not think the offered price was acceptable.
- This provision, commonly referred to as “compulsory licensing”, was already built into the TRIPS Agreement and the Doha declaration only clarified its usage.
- Under Section 92 of the 1970 Indian Patents Act, the central government has the power to allow compulsory licenses to be issued at any time in case of a national emergency or circumstances of extreme urgency.
To know about IPRs in India, please refer July 2021 DPN.
Amendment to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
- An amendment to the WTO’s intellectual property (TRIPS) agreement entered into force on 23 January 2017.
- Aimed at improving poor countries’ access to affordable medicines, the amendment makes permanent a decision on patents and public health originally adopted in 2003.
- The amendment was formally built into the TRIPS Agreement after two-thirds of the WTO’s members accepted it.
- In August 2003, WTO members agreed to remove an important obstacle to affordable drug imports: they waived the limitation in the TRIPS Agreement to predominantly supply the local market when generic medicines are produced under compulsory licence.
- The system established by the decision empowers importing developing and least-developed countries facing public health problems and lacking the capacity to produce generic drugs to seek such medicines from third country producers under “compulsory licensing” arrangements.
- This amendment allows exporting countries to grant compulsory licences to generic suppliers exclusively for the purpose of manufacturing and exporting needed medicines to countries lacking production capacity.
- WTO members agreed on 6 December 2005 to permanently incorporate the 2003 waiver decision into the TRIPS Agreement.
- Following a recent rapid increase in the pace of acceptances, the amendment entered into force on 23 January 2017.
- This additional flexibility to protect public health is therefore an integral part of the TRIPS Agreement.
- Compulsory licensing is a government’s authorization to someone else to produce the patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner.
- The TRIPS Agreement allows compulsory licensing as part of the Agreement’s overall balance between promoting access to existing drugs and promoting research and development into new drugs.
- Article 31 of the Agreement allows compulsory licensing and government use of a patent without the authorization of its owner, under a number of conditions aimed at protecting the legitimate interests of the patent holder.
- The option to grant a compulsory licence under Article 31 for the purpose of manufacturing or import is available to all members.
- It can cover all products or technologies needed to treat a disease or to fight a pandemic.
- Under the conditions in Article 31, normally, the person or company applying for a licence must have first attempted, unsuccessfully, to obtain a voluntary licence from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms.
- If a compulsory licence is issued, adequate remuneration must still be paid to the patent holder.
- However, for “national emergencies”, “other circumstances of extreme urgency” or “public non-commercial use” (or “government use”) or anti-competitive practices, there is no need to try for a voluntary licence.
The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and public health
- WTO members adopted a separate Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health in 2001. It states that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent members from taking measures to protect public health.
- It clarified TRIPS flexibilities regarding compulsory licensing and exhaustion, and also created the basis for extending the transition period for least developed countries in the pharmaceutical sector.
- In particular, it dispelled the myth that compulsory licences should be limited to emergency situations by confirming that WTO members were free to determine the grounds under which compulsory licences could be issued.
Subject – Economy
Context – To retain customers, manufacturers and sellers must implement ‘Hallmarking Unique Identity’ in spirit
- Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Hallmarking was launched in 2001 as a voluntary scheme, with the objective of protecting the consumers against adulteration and justifying an obligatory responsibility of the manufacturers to maintain legal standards of fineness of precious metals in India.
- Under this scheme, BIS-certified jewellers can get their jewellery hallmarked from any of the BIS-recognised Assaying and Hallmarking Centres (AHMCs).
- Voluntary hallmarking was a fairly straightforward procedure, which required minimal documentation.
- However, the introduction of HUID made it possible to validate the hallmarking process. By generating a unique identification number for each article of jewellery, and obligatory submission of reported sampling and testing for purity, complete transparency was achieved in the system.
- This facilitated the creation of a record of the transfer of ownership of jewellery articles, as well as, verification by the end-use customer regarding the authenticity of each unit using the HUID portal even before the purchase.
To know more about Hallmarking, please refer August 2021 DPN.
To know about Hallmark Unique Identification, please refer August 2021 DPN.
Subject – Agriculture
Context – The trend of eating locally produced, seasonal foods that our previous generations swore by has been discarded by most of us.
- Food miles is the distance food is transported from the time of its making until it reaches the consumer.
- Food miles are one factor used when testing the environmental impact of food, such as the carbon footprint of the food.
- The more food miles that attach to a given food, the less sustainable and the less environmentally desirable that food is.
- But the vast distances that food travels ‘from plough to plate’ makes it vulnerable to oil supply, inefficient on a per calorie basis, and unsustainable in the long run.
- The transportation of food is about 12 per cent of the carbon cost of the food we eat.
- ‘Food miles’ is an important tool to assess and identify the sustainability of food production and consumption. It is measured in tonne-kilometres, calculated by multiplying the weight of food items in tonnes by the distance travelled in kilometres.
- Road, air, rail and sea all contribute differently in the overall transport carbon emission — 60 per cent, 20 per cent, 10 per cent and 10 per cent respectively. Food transported via express fast air routes can have a 50 times higher carbon footprint than transporting food slowly via sea.
Subject – Environment
Context – zika virus outbreak
- In the years that immediately followed the first case of Zika infection in 1952, the disease was endemic to tropical and subtropical regions. The global rise in surface temperature due to climate change pushed the virus into colder reaches of the country.
- The vectors of the virus — Aedesaegypti and Aedesalbopictus mosquitoes — are ectotherms. This means the body temperature is regulated by their habitat — the warmer the surroundings, the warmer it is within the host body.
- The suitable range for the transmission of the Zika virus is 23.9-34 degrees Celsius.
- In a worst-case global warming scenario, where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not reduced, over 1.3 billion new people will be exposed to Zika by 2050.
- The world is not on track to keep warming within 1.5°C over pre-industrial levels, and global temperature rise can cross 2.4°C by the end of this century despite pledges made at the 26th Conference of Parties (CoP26) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
- The higher global temperatures can accelerate evolution of the pathogen and vector, apart from widening the range of transmission.
- Aedes mosquitoes breed in small pools of water. Thus, heavy and frequent rainfall due to climate change can result in higher transmission rates.
- The virus can also flourish during droughts in water storage containers — a correlation seen during the outbreak in Latin America.
- Precipitation patterns upset by climate change thus fuels the spread of the Zika virus previously untouched by the infection.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – In Jhansi event, PM to hand over indigenous LCH to IAF
- The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is an Indian multi-role attack helicopter designed and manufactured by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).
- The LCH has been ordered by the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army.
- Its flight ceiling is the highest among all attack helicopters.
- The twin-engine LCH, designed and developed by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), is a 5-8 tonne class dedicated combat helicopter.
- It is the only attack helicopter in the world which can land and take off at an altitude of 5,000 m with considerable load of weapons and fuel, significantly augmenting the firepower of the IAF and the Army in high-altitude areas.
- It will eventually be deployed along the Line of Actual Control with China in addition to the AH-64E Apache helicopters in service.
Subject – Polity
Context – Will examine validity of special courts for MPs, MLAs, says SC
- In 2017, the Supreme Court had ordered that special courts be set up across the country to fast-track the long-pending trials of lawmakers.
- Following this, 12 special courts were set up across 11 States exclusively to try sitting MPs and MLAs.
- The special court in each State has jurisdiction over the entire State while the two in Delhi cover cases within the precincts of Delhi or “partly Delhi”.
Reservation of the Committee of the Madras High Court –
- It has questioned the constitutional validity of setting up Special Courts to exclusively try MPs and MLAs for various crimes.
- Special Courts can only be constituted by a statute and not by executive or judiciary.
- The Special Courts should be “offence-centric” and not “offender-centric.”
What are the issues associated with the special courts?
- Special courts deprive the accused of their right to a rung of appeal. If the case of an MLA or MP whose offence can be tried by a magistrate is directly placed before a special court, the accused would lose his right to defend his case before a magistrate and also is stripped of his right to make his first appeal before a sessions court.
Note – Section 8 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951, bans convicted politicians (for certain offences) from contesting. However, those facing trial, no matter how serious the charges, are free to contest.
Subject – Polity
Context – CJI urged to list key cases before Constitution Benches
- A constitution bench consists of at least five or more judges of the court which is set up to decide substantial questions of law with regard to the interpretation of the constitution in a case.
- The provision for a constitution bench has been provided in the Constitution of India under Article 143.
- It is the Chief Justice of India who is constitutionally authorized to constitute a constitution bench and refer cases to it.
Constitution benches are set up when the following circumstances exist:
1) When a case involves a substantial question of law pertaining to the interpretation of the Constitution [Article 145(3)].
- Article 145(3) provides, “The minimum number of Judges who are to sit for the purpose of deciding any case involving a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution or for the purpose of hearing any reference under Article 143 shall be five.”
2) When President of India has sought the Supreme Court’s opinion on a question of fact or law under Article 143 of the Constitution.
- Article 143 of the Constitution provides for Advisory jurisdiction to the Supreme Court of India. As per the provision, the President of India has the power to address questions to the Supreme Court, which he deems important for public welfare. The Supreme Court upon reference advises the President by answering the query. However, such referral advice by the apex court is not binding on the President, nor is it ‘law declared by the Supreme Court’.
3) When two or more three-judge benches of the Supreme Court have delivered conflicting judgments on the same point of law, necessitating a definite understanding and interpretation of the law by a larger bench.
The Constitution benches are set up on ad hoc basis as and when the above-mentioned conditions exist.
Subject – Polity
Context – Centre proposes setting up new body for river-linking projects in India
- The Centre has set in motion the process of creating the National Interlinking of Rivers Authority (NIRA), an independent autonomous body for planning, investigation, financing and the implementation of the river interlinking projects in the country.
- NIRA, to be headed by a Government of India Secretary-rank officer, will replace the existing National Water Development Agency (NWDA) and will function as an umbrella body for all river linking projects.
- The new body will coordinate with neighbouring countries and concerned states and departments and will also have powers on issues related to environment, wildlife and forest clearances under river linking projects and their legal aspects.
- NIRA will have the power to raise funds and act as a repository of borrowed funds or money received on deposit or loan given on interest.
- Besides, it will also have a mandate to coordinate with neighbouring countries “as directed” by the Ministry of Jal Shakti or the Ministry of External Affairs.
- It will also have the power to set up a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for individual link projects.
Inter-State River Water Disputes:
- Article 262 of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of inter-state water disputes.
- Under this, Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution and control of waters of any inter-state river and river valley.
- Parliament may also provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court is to exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint.
- The Parliament has enacted the two laws, the River Boards Act (1956) and the Inter-State Water Disputes Act (1956).
- The River Boards Act provides for the establishment of river boards by the Central government for the regulation and development of Inter-state River and river valleys. A River Board is established on the request of state governments concerned to advise them.
- The Inter-State Water Disputes Act empowers the Central government to set up an ad hoc tribunal for the adjudication of a dispute between two or more states in relation to the waters of an inter-state river or river valley.
- The decision of the tribunal is final and binding on the parties to the dispute.
- Neither the Supreme Court nor any other court is to have jurisdiction in respect of any water dispute which may be referred to such a tribunal under this Act.
Subject – History
Context – UP CM Yogi’s claim: Chandragupta defeated Alexander, but isn’t called ‘great’
- Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath on Sunday claimed that Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Mauryan kingdom, had defeated Alexander of Macedonia, and yet historians did not describe him as “great”.
- Alexander died in 323 BC, a few years after his Indian campaign. There is some debate among historians over when Chandragupta came to power, but it is generally believed to have been after Alexander’s death.
About Chandragupta Maurya
- In 321 BC, Chandragupta Maurya, with the help of Chanakya (author of Arthashasthra) founded the Mauryan dynasty after overthrowing Nanda Dynasty.
- The Mauryan Empire was the first most powerful Indian empire to bring the entire Indian subcontinent under a single rule.
- The Mauryanempire under Chandragupta Maurya spread its boundaries into Central Asia and Persia.
- Greek accounts mention him as Sandrokottos.
- Alexander had abandoned his India conquest in 324 BC and within a year, Chandragupta had defeated some of the Greek-ruled cities in the north-western part of the country.
- Megasthenes was the Greek ambassador at Chandragupta’s court.
- He abdicated the throne in favour of his son, Bindusara, and went to Karnataka with Jain monk Bhadrabahu. He had embraced Jainism and is said to have starved himself to death according to the Jain tradition at Shravanabelagola.
Alexander the Great
- Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia was born in 356 BCE in Pella, Macedonia. He died on June 13, 323 BCE in Babylon.
- He was the king of Macedonia (336–323 BCE), who overthrew the Persian empire.
- He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.
- In 326 BC, Alexander invaded India, after crossing the river Indus he advanced towards Taxila.
- He then challenged king Porus, ruler of the kingdom between the rivers Jhelum and Chenab.
- The Indians were defeated in the fierce battle (Battle of Hydaspes).
- Alexander captured Porus and, like the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to continue to govern his territory.
- Alexander remained in India for 19 months (326-325 B.C.), which were full of fighting in July 325 BC Alexander and his army returned westward for home.
Subject – Environment
Context – Coal ‘phasedown’ is a right, says Minister
- The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), defined in Article 12 of the Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.
- Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
- The CDM is the main source of income for the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund. The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on CERs issued by the CDM.
- Adaptation Fund (AF) was established under the Kyoto Protocol in 2001 and has committed US$ 532 million to climate adaptation and resilience activities.
- Under CDM, CER units are issued by the UNFCCC which is the global administrator of Kyoto mechanisms.
- It is the first global, environmental investment and credit scheme of its kind, providing a standardized emissions offset instrument, CERs.
- The projects must qualify through a rigorous and public registration and issuance process.
- Approval is given by the Designated National Authorities. Public funding for CDM project activities must not result in the diversion of official development assistance.
- The mechanism is overseen by the CDM Executive Board, answerable ultimately to the countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol.
Subject – Environment
Context – Telangana agrees to transfer two pairs of lions to SGNP
- Maharashtra forest department, which has been rebuffed by Gujarat and Karnataka for the past three years for the transfer of Asiatic Lions from Gir and Bannerghatta national parks, has now received a positive response from Telangana, to increase the lion population at Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) in Borivali, Mumbai.
- The Telangana forest department has agreed to exchange two pairs of lions from the Nehru Zoological Park in Hyderabad with pairs of breeding rusty-spotted cats from SGNP.
- Under existing rules, animals have to be bartered between zoos. The Central Zoo Authority (CZA) regulates the exchange of animals of the endangered category listed under Schedule I and II of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, among zoos.
- The Central Zoo Authority (CZA) does not allow the inbreeding of wild cats and has also directed states to ensure that breeding of hybrid lions was phased out.
- Endemic to India, Sri Lanka and areas along the Indo-Nepal border, the rusty-spotted cats are the smallest wild cat species in the world protected under schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
- The Asiatic Lion (also known as the Persian Lion or Indian Lion) is a member of the Panthera Leo Leo subspecies that is restricted to India.
- Its previous habitats consisted of West Asia and the Middle East before it became extinct in these regions.
- Asiatic lions are slightly smaller than African lions.
- At present Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
- IUCN Red List: Endangered
- CITES: Appendix I
- The “Asiatic Lion Conservation Project” has been launched by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
- It has been approved for three financial years from 2018 to 2021.
Nehru Zoological Park
- It is one of the largest zoos of India and one of the top sightseeing places to visit in Hyderabad, Telangana. Run by the Forest department, Government of Telangana, the zoo has been named after Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of the country.
- It was opened to the public in the year of 1963.
- It is situated near the historically important Mir Alam Tank, which is 200 year old and is the first multi-arch masonry dam in the world.
Sanjay Gandhi National Park
- Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a 87 km2 (34 sq mi) protected area in Mumbai, Maharashtra State in India.
- Tourists enjoy visiting the 2400-year-old Kanheri caves sculpted out of the rocky cliff which lies within the park.
- The Kanheri Caves in the centre of the park were an important Buddhist learning centre and pilgrimage site sculpted by Buddhist monks between the 9th and the 1st centuries BCE.
- They were chiselled out of a massive basaltic rock outcropping.
- It was formerly known as Borivali National Park.
- The park has two lakes, Vihar Lake and Tulsi Lake, which meet a part of the city’s water requirements.
Context: Methane from animal waste contribute to 75% of total greenhouse emissions from the dairy sector
Climate Change and animal rearing
Deforestation: The conversion of forests into agricultural land and livestock ranches is one of the major causes of deforestation. It is being done to meet the rising demand for food. One to two acres of rainforests are cleared every second for animal rearing and agriculture. Forests are the natural habitat of more than 70 per cent of the world’s plant and animal species. Many species of animals and plants are becoming extinct, or on the brink of extinction because of deforestation. The rapid rate at which trees are being cut down can harm communities that depend on forests for their livelihood.
Greenhouse gas emissions: Raising livestock generates 14.5 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions that are very bad for the environment. Forests help lower the risks of sudden climate change and also tone down the impacts from natural disasters. Since 46% of all agricultural emissions in India are contributed by ruminants such as goats, sheep and cattle, India needs to move away from the traditional animal husbandry practices and invest in newer technologies that will improve animal breeding and rearing practices, use of good livestock feeds and implement proper manure management, all of which will contribute to the reduction of the GHG emissions.
- India was also among the countries that did not sign on a methane pledge. The U.S. and the European Union have jointly pledged to cut emissions of the greenhouse gas methane by 2030 by 30% compared with the 2020 levels. India is the third largest emitter of methane, primarily because of the size of its rural economy and by virtue of having the largest cattle population
Resource Intensive: Water is another natural resource that is being depleted rapidly. 70 per cent of our planet comprises of water but only 2.5 per cent of it is fresh water. About 92 per cent of the fresh water is used for farming purposes, and 1/3rd of it is used for rearing livestock and manufacturing animal products. Livestock farming creates a huge carbon footprint and has a very high global warming potential.
- The Adaptation Fund (AF) was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
- The Adaptation Fund is financed with a share of proceeds from the clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities and other sources of funding. The share of proceeds amounts to 2 per cent of certified emission reductions (CERs) issued for a CDM project activity.
- The Adaptation Fund is supervised and managed by the Adaptation Fund Board (AFB). The AFB is composed of 16 members and 16 alternates and meets at least twice a year (Membership of the AFB).
- In decision 1/CMP.8, the Parties decided that for the second commitment period, the Adaptation Fund shall be further augmented through a 2 per cent share of the proceeds levied on the first international transfers of AAUs and the issuance of ERUs for Article 6 projects immediately upon the conversion to ERUs of AAUs or RMUs previously held by Parties.
- Through decisions 13/CMA.1 and 1/CMP.14, it was decided that the Adaptation Fund shall serve the Paris Agreement under the CMA with respect to all Paris Agreement matters, effective1 January 2019. Parties also decided that once the share of proceeds becomes available under Article 6, paragraph 4, of the Paris Agreement, that the Adaptation Fund shall no longer serve the Kyoto Protocol. Furthermore, Parties decided that the Adaptation Fund shall continue to receive the share of proceeds, if available, from activities under Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol.