Daily Prelims Notes 18 August 2020
- August 18, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Project lion, project dolphin
- Nagar van scheme
- ARIIA 2020
- First World Solar Technology Summit
- Jallianwala Bagh
- Gothic architecture
- Dwarf planet Ceres
- Bhadbhut project
- Trap Door
- Global currency Dollar
- Front Running
- Classical music
Prime minister in his Independence Day speech had announced the launch of Project Lion and Project Dolphin
- Project Dolphin will involve conservation of Dolphins and the aquatic habitat through use of modern technology especially in enumeration and anti-poaching activities.
- The project will engage the fishermen and other river/ ocean dependent population and will strive for improving the livelihood of the local communities.
- The conservation of Dolphin will also envisage activities which will also help in the mitigation of pollution in rivers and in the oceans.
- It will include oceanic as well as Gangetic river dolphins, which were declared a National Aquatic species in 2010.
- Dolphins are one of the oldest creatures in the world along with some species of turtles, crocodiles and sharks.
- Ganges river dolphins once lived in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. But the species is extinct from most of its early distribution ranges.
- The Ganges river dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind.
- They hunt by emitting ultrasonic sounds, which bounces off of fish and other prey, enabling them to “see” an image in their mind.
- IUCN status of Ganges river dolphin:
- Project Lion will involve conservation of the Asiatic Lion and its landscape in a holistic manner.
- The Project Lion will entail habitat development, engage modern technologies in Lion management and address the issues of disease in Lion and its associated species through advanced world-class research and veterinary care.
- The project will also address Human-wildlife conflict and will be inclusive involving local communities living in the vicinity of Lion landscape and will also provide livelihood opportunities.
- Asiatic lions were once distributed upto the state of West Bengal in east and Rewa in Madhya Pradesh, in central India.
- At present Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is the only abode of the Asiatic lion.
- The last surviving population of the Asiatic lions is a compact tract of dry deciduous forest and open grassy scrublands in southwestern part of Saurashtra region of Gujarat.
- Listed in Schedule I of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, in Appendix I of CITES and as Endangered on IUCN Red List
Government is focusing on enhancing forest quality and increasing tree cover in the country for maximizing carbon stock. One such is by Nagar van scheme
- The Nagar Van Scheme was announced on World Environment Day 2020 for creation of 200 Nagar Van, on forest land by adopting a collaborative approach, involving various agencies like forest and other departments, NGOs, Corporate Bodies, Industries etc.
- The primary objective is to create forested area in cities with Municipal Corporation, which will act as lungs of the cities.
3. ARIIA 2020
Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020 will be announced
- ARIIA is an initiative of Ministry of HRD, implemented by AICTE and Ministry’s Innovation Cell, Government of India to systematically rank higher education institutions and universities in India on indicators related to Innovation, Startup and Entrepreneurship Development amongst students and faculty.
- AICTE, highlighted that the world is observing a noteworthy improvement in performance of India in Global Innovation Index ranking.
- In last 5 years, India has risen 29 spots in Global Innovation Index from 81 in 2014 to 52 in 2019.
- ARIIA focuses on quality and quantity of innovations coming out of the education institutes and measures the real impact created by these innovations nationally and internationally.
- ARIIA will set tone and direction for institutions for future development and making them globally competitive and in forefront of innovation.
The First World Solar Technology Summit will be organized by International Solar Alliance, ISA on a virtual platform on 8th of September.
- The objective of the event is to bring the spotlight on state-of-the-art technologies as well as next-generation technologies which will provide impetus to the efforts towards harnessing the solar energy more efficiently.
- The event will hold four technical sessions that would be available to the participants in different languages namely English, Spanish, French & Arabic.
- Leading companies and research organisations from across the world will present their work during these sessions and will deliberate on latest trends in solar technologies.
- Vision 2030 & Beyond: The overall context of Photo Voltaic technology development and its future, on its way towards becoming the first source of energy worldwide, with PV technologies supplying 70% of the world’s electricity generation.
- Towards a Decarbonised Grid: The most recent advances (conversion efficiency improvements and declining costs) regarding key components such as PV modules and storage technologies.
- Disruptive Solar Technologies: On-grid applications, whether ground-mounted, floating, or integrated in residential and commercial rooftops.
- Solar Beyond the Power Sector: Innovative applications where PV is used to move, heat, cool, and drive eco-friendly industrial processes and produce fuels as well as off-grid applications, to provide universal access to energy.
International Solar Alliance
- The ISA, an action-oriented organization, aims at lowering the cost of technology and finance and thereby facilitate deployment of over 1,000 GW of solar energy and mobilize more than USD 1,000 billion into solar power by 2030 in Member countries.
- The ISA envisions to enable the full ecosystem for availability and development of technology, economic resources, and development of storage technology, mass manufacturing and innovation. The reduced cost of technology would enable the undertaking of more ambitious solar energy programmes.
- The ISA has 67 countries and has six programmes viz. Solar Applications for Agricultural Use, Affordable Finance at Scale, Mini Grids, and Solar Rooftops and Solar E-mobility & Storage and Large-Scale Solar Parks.
Ministry of Tourism presented Webinar on “Jallianwala Bagh: A turning point in the Freedom struggle” under DekhoApnaDesh Series as a run up to the Independence Day Celebrations.
- The Rowlatt Act or Black Act which was a Draconian Act passed by the British Government which gave powers to the Police to arrest any person without any reason whatsoever.
- The purpose of the Act was to curb the growing nationalist upsurge in the country. Gandhi called upon the people to do Satyagraha against such oppressive “Act”.
- Jallianwala Bagh was then a barren land where people would meet often and use to have peaceful protest. This made the British nervous as they had never seen any resistance.
- SaifuddinKitchlu and Dr. Satyapal were renowned national leaders of the city of Amritsar.They organized Satyagraha against Rowlatt Act.
- People from all sects participated in peaceful gatherings that happened in Jallianwala Bagh. This led to lot of misconceptions and misunderstanding among the Britishers.
- The British Government ordered the arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal. The news of their arrest evoked strong reaction among the people of Amritsar.
- On 9th April 1919, Mahatma Gandhi was arrested and people were unable to understand the reason behind the arrest.
- When news of Gandhi’s arrest reached Amritsar on the 10th, a large and angry crowd collected on the streets. British banks were set on fire and three bank managers murdered. The violence continued through the 10th and 11th April.
- With the police unable to control the crowds, the city was placed under de facto martial law. The Collector handed over charge to Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, who had come with a contingent of Gurkha and Pathan troops.
- On Sunday, 13 April 1919 Dyer, anticipated that a major insurrection could take place, thus had banned all meetings.
- This notice was not widely disseminated, and many villagers gathered in the Bagh to celebrate the Indian festival of Baisakhi, and peacefully protest the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satyapal and SaifuddinKitchlew.
- Dyer and his troops entered the garden, blocking the main entrance behind them, took up position on a raised bank, and with no warning opened fire on the crowd
- The British Government established a Committee to inquire into the events, and the Hunter Commission Report includes evidence taken in relation to the events in Amritsar.
- In the final report submitted in March 1920, the Committee unanimously condemned Dyer’s actions. However, the Hunter Committee did not impose any penal or disciplinary action against General Dyer.
- Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest and Mahatma Gandhi gave up the title of Kaiser-i-Hind, bestowed by the British for his work during the Boer War.
Subject: Arts and culture
Kerala government took control of Marthoman Jacobite Syrian Cathedral Church at Mulanthuruthy in Ernakulam district, which has been in the focus of a dispute between Jacobite and Orthodox factions of the Malankara Church
- Gothic architecture, architectural style in Europe that lasted from the mid-12th century to the 16th century
- Gothic architecture is a European style of architecture that values height and exhibits an intricate and delicate aesthetic.
- Though its roots are French, the Gothic approach can be found in churches, cathedrals, and other similar buildings in Europe and beyond.
- The Gothic style evolved from Romanesque architecture, a medieval aesthetic characterized by arches, vaulted ceilings, and small stained glass windows.
- Gothic architecture adapted these Romanesque elements to produce a new style of building that featured exaggerated arches, increased vaulting, and enlarged windows.
- To construct taller, more delicate buildings with thinner walls, Gothic architects employed flying buttresses for support. These stone structures allowed architects to create sky-high cathedrals and churches that evoked ethereality and reached toward the heavens.
Subject: Science and tech
Researchers have shed new light on the dwarf planet Ceres which now has the status of an “ocean world”, after scientistsanalysed data collected by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft.
- There are officially five dwarf planets in our Solar System.
- The most famous is Pluto, downgraded from the status of a planet in 2006.
- The other four, in order of size, are Eris, Makemake, Haumea and Ceres. The sixth claimant for a dwarf planet is Hygiea, which so far has been taken to be an asteroid.
- Four criteria set by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for a celestial body to be called a dwarf planet.
- The body orbits around the Sun, it is not a moon, has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit (which means it is not the dominant body in its orbit around the Sun and this is what differentiates a planet from a dwarf planet) and has enough mass for its gravity to pull it into a roughly spherical shape.
The Gujarat government recently awarded the contract for a barrage project across Narmada river.
- It is planned to be a 1.7-km causeway-cum-weir barrage with 90 gates, across the river Narmada, 5 km from Bhadbhut village, and 25 km from the mouth of the river, where it flows into the Gulf of Khambhat.
- The barrage will stop most of the excess water flowing out of the SardarSarovar Dam from reaching the sea and thus create a “sweet water lake” of 600 mcm (million cubic metres) on the river.
- The main purpose of the project is to prevent salinity ingress.
- The sweet water from the reservoir will aim to meet the residential and industrial water requirements of Bharuch, Ankleshwar and Dahej.
- The project is part of the larger Kalpasar Project, which entails construction of a 30-km dam across the Gulf of Khambhat between Bharuch and Bhavnagar districts. The reservoir is meant to tap the waters of the Narmada, Mahisagar and Sabarmati.
9. Trap Door
Subject: Science and tech
The department of Telecommunications (DoT) is set to direct all telecom operators to undertake an ‘information security audit’ of their networks and submit the report by October end.
A ‘backdoor’ or a ‘trap door’ is a bug installed in the telecom hardware which allows companies to listen in or collect data being shared on the network.
Many countries have started settling trade transactions in local currencies rather depending on dollar
- Since the early 19th century, countries struggled to find the best way to settle trade balance.
- It was not easy as each had its currency with no check on more printing. Finally, most countries agreed to settle trade deficits through the exchange of gold. This system continued up to Word War I.
- Then many countries stopped their currencies’ convertibility to gold so they could print more money to finance the war effort. Disappearance of gold as a common anchor led to the collapse of the global financial system and became one of the reasons leading to great depression in the early 1930s.
- Realising the importance of an anchor like gold for promoting stable trade and finance, countries on the winning side of Word War II agreed to establish a robust global financial system.
- US proposed that the new system should rest on both gold and the US dollar. Except for the Soviet Union, all 44 participating nations signed the Bretton Woods agreement in 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, US.
- The member-countries agreed to maintain a fixed exchange rate which could be adjusted if deficits or surpluses persisted. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was created to lend to member-countries in need of foreign exchange.
- The price of gold was fixed at $35 per ounce. The US agreed to supply gold at this price in the exchange with dollars held by other countries.
- The gold for dollar system worked during 1950-70. But it came under strain as the US started printing and spending a large value of dollars on post-war reconstruction efforts. When countries holding these dollars went for exchange with gold, the US gold reserves started vanishing.
- Gold supply was finite, but the dollar printing knew no limits. The story came to an end in August 1971 when the US reneged from its commitment to convert the US dollar to gold.
- De-linking gold with dollar made the US the linchpin of global finance. Other countries need to earn foreign exchange by exporting; the US Fed has just to hit the print button. Fed has almost become the central bank of the world. Central banks all over the world must calibrate their policies to be in sync with the Fed’s.
- A country’s economy is ransom to Fed’s actions. If Fed increases the interest rate, dollars flow back to the US, and if it lowers rates, dollars move to the world to take advantage of growth stories or interest rate arbitrage of individual countries.
11. Front Running
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) sought to bar 27 entities from the capital market for being connected to a case of front running.
- Front running is the illegal practice of purchasing a security based on advance non-public information regarding an expected large transaction that will affect the price of a security.
- Front running is considered as a form of market manipulation and insider trading because a person who commits a front running activity expects security’s price movements based on the non-public information.
12. Classical music
Subject:Arts and culture
Indian classical vocalist PanditJasraj passed away . He belonged to MewatiGharana
Throughout the ages, man has sought to express the stirrings of his soul, the search for something beyond the mundane through the medium of the arts.
The evolution of poetry, painting and other visual arts has been preserved on stone, leaves and paper but music being auditory, no such evidence exists. As such it is not possible to listen today to the music of the ancient times.
Inspite of such a variety of cultural interactions, our music has remained essentially melodic. In melody, one note follows the other, making for a continued unity of effect, whereas in harmony musical sounds are superimposed on one another. Our classical music has retained its melodic quality.
Today we recognise two systems of classical music: the Hindustani and the Carnatic.Carnatic music is confined to Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.The classical music of the rest of the country goes under the name, Hindustani Classical Music. Of course. there are some areas in Karnataka and Andhra where the Hindustani Classical system is also practiced. Karnataka has given us in the recent past some very distinguished musicians of the Hindustani style.
It is generally believed that the music of India was more or less uniform before the 13th century. Later it bifurcated into the two musical systems.
The present Indian music has grown from ancient times. Almost every tribe or people have lent their own share in this growth. What therefore, we now call a raga might have started as a tribal or folk tune.
Hindustani Music is the one among the two distinct varieties of Indian Classical Music. The other variety of Indian classical music is Carnatic Music. While the former belongs to the Northern part of the country, the latter is south Indian. This music became popular during the Mughal Empire. Some Persian and Arabic elements have been assimilated in this music system. There are 10 forms are styles of singing and composition. Among them, Dhrupad, Khayal, Tappa and Thumri are the most popular.
This is the oldest and grandest form of Hindustani music. It is essentially poetic and it is presented in a style marked with precise and orderly elaboration of Raga. exposition proceedings composed verses is called Alap.
Khayal means imagination. This is the most prominent style in hindustani depicting romantic style of singing. It largely depends on the imagination and improvisation of the performer. It is also composed of particular raga and tala. It ranges from praise of kings description of seasons and pranks of Lord Sri Krishna.
Thumri originated in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. It is influenced by hori, kajri, Dadra. Tumhri is supposed to be romantic and erotic style of singing and is also called “lyric of Indian classical music”. The song composition mainly on love and devotion.
Tappa developed around the 18th century. It means jump in Persian, it is developed on folk songs of camel riders.
- Gharanas in Indian Classical Music is an age-old tradition. All the Gharanas have distinctive styles and manner in which they sing the notes. There are different Gharanas based in different regions, and their styles are also highly influenced by the creative style invented by one master that goes on to be emulated by his students. This Guru-Shishya concept is called ‘Gharanas’ in Hindustani Classical Music. They also devised new style by improvising on the existing musical structures, and giving it new form through different approach and interpretation.
- Gharanas in Hindustani Classical Music are divided in two major categories – ‘Khyal’ and ‘Thumri’, based on the singing style or known as ‘Gayaki’ in Hindustani Classical Music.
Reasons for emergence of Gharans
- The gharana concept gained currency only in the nineteenth century when the royal patronage enjoyed by performers weakened. Performers were then compelled to move to urban centres. To retain their respective identities, they fell back on the names of the regions they hailed from. Therefore, even today, the names of many gharanas refer to places. Some of the gharanas well known for singing khayalsare : Agra, Gwalior, Patiala, Kirana, Indore, Mewati, Sahaswan, Bhendibazar and Jaipur.
Gharanas in Dhrupad singing too came into existence several centuries after their birth. It moved from the temples to concentrate in the royal courts of the north, and finally, in the 18th century, when its popularity began to wane, dhrupad singers dispersed to places like Mathura, Rampur, Jaipur, Varanasi, Darbhanga, Betia, Vishnupur etc.
- There are also gharanas for thumris – like Banaras. Lucknow, Patiala though another school of thought opines that thumris are devoid of gharana divisions and are only to be associated with certain styles or Baj.
The concept of hereditary musicians was not confined to vocal music alone. Hence there are also gharanas in instrumental music – sitar, sarode, tabla etc.