Daily Prelims Notes 23 February 2022
- February 23, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
23 February 2022
Table Of Contents
- How sea turtles help face cyclones
- ORGANIZATIONS LISTED UNDER UAPA
- FINANCIAL STABILITY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL (FSDC)
- Neem- the great healer battling for life
- RICE FORTIFICATION
- RUBBER PLANTATIONS
- ELECTRONIC VEHICLES
- FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
- WTO & TRIPS
Context- An FIR has been registered against three Mumbai Police officials last week for allegedly threatening Angadias and extorting money from them in south Mumbai.
Who are Angadias?
- The Angadia system is a century-old parallel banking system in the country where traders send cash generally from one state to another through a person called Angadia that stands for courier.
- It is by and large used in the jewellery business with Mumbai – Surat being the most popular route as they are two ends of the diamond trade.
- The cash involved is huge and it is the responsibility of the Angadia to transfer cash from one state to another for which they charge a nominal fee.
- Generally, it is the Gujarati, Marwari and Malbari community that are involved in the business.
Is the system legal?
- While the Angadia system per se is legal, there hangs a cloud over the activity as it is suspected that a lot of times it is used to transfer unaccounted money.
- Since the business deals in cash and there is no account maintained for the same, there have been suspicions that it is also used for transfer of black money like the hawala transaction which is generally used across countries.
TOPIC: Science & Tech.
Context- Sea turtles on Reunion Island, a French territory in the Indian Ocean, are being fitted with special tags to help researchers collect data about cyclones.
- STORM (Sea Turtles for Ocean Research and Monitoring) is a partnership between the Kelonia care centre and the Atmosphere and Cyclone Laboratory of the University of La Réunion.
- It is a cooperation between biologists and meteorologists for:
- Better knowledge of the oceanic behaviour of juvenile sea turtles, and
- New data on the surface and sub-surface temperatures of the oceans and the genesis of cyclones.
- Argos tags are equipped with temperature and depth sensors and record temperature variations with the depth during turtle dives.
- It is the oceanic movements of the turtles, during which they cross the zones of creation and development of cyclones.
- Réunion is a French overseas department and overseas region in the western Indian Ocean. It is located about 420 miles (680 km) east of Madagascar and 110 miles (180 km) southwest of Mauritius.
Context- Apps, social media accounts of channels blocked for ‘disturbing public order’.
- The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has blocked apps, website and social media accounts of Punjab Politics TV citing close links with the banned outﬁt Sikhs For Justice (SFJ), and its attempt to use the online media to disturb public order during the ongoing Punjab Assembly election.
- The SFJ was proscribed by the government under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act in 2019.
Organizations Listed under UAPA:
- Pro Khalistan Terrorist Organizations listed in the FIRST SCHEDULE of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 include:
- BabbarKhalsa International,
- Khalistan Tiger Force
- International Sikh Youth Federation.
- The Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF) and all its manifestations
- Khalistan Commando Force
- Khalistan Zindabad Force
- Organisations listed in the Schedule to the U.N. Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism (Implementation of Security Council Resolutions) Order, 2007 made under section 2 of the United Nations (Security Council) Act, 1947 and amended from time to time.
Context- The Financial Stability Development Council met on Tuesday to look at possible challenges for financial stability. The challenges include Crude oil International situation in Ukraine along with others.
- The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) was constituted by an Executive Order of the Union Government as a non-statutory apex body under the Ministry of Finance in 2010.
- The RaghuramRajan committee (2008)on financial sector reforms first proposed the creation of FSDC.
- Council Members
- The Finance Minister is the Chairman of the FSDC.
- Members of FSDC include Heads of the Financial Sector Regulators listed below:
- Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
- Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)
- Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
- Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA)
- Other members are Finance Secretary, Chief Economic Advisor and Secretary of the Department of Financial Services.
- FSDC sub-committee is headed by the Governor of RBI.
Context- Scientists hope its medicinal properties can ﬁght the ‘dieback disease’.
- Observed in the Gadwal region of Telangana a few months ago, the ‘dieback disease’ in neem tree.
- It is a fungal infection which spread rapidly, infecting thousands of neem trees across the State.
- The disease changes the leaf colour to pale green or yellow, scorches the leaf margins and reduces the growth of twigs and stem.
- The disease leads to the death of the tree.
- ‘Dieback’ refers to the progressive death of twigs and branches which generally starts at the tips.
- It was ﬁrst reported in India in Dehradun in 1992.
- Azadirachtaindica is commonly known as neem tree.
- It is a tree in the mahogany family
- Neem is renowned for its antiviral, anti-bacterial and anti-inﬂammatory properties.
- Neem is known for its pesticidal and insecticidal properties, but people also use it in hair and dental products.
- Neem has been patented by India for its use as biofertilizer, biopesticide and antifertility compound as contraceptive.
TOPIC: Science &Tech
Context- The government of India plans to take accelerated steps to distribute fortiﬁed rice through the social safety net schemes of Targeted Public Distribution System, PM Poshan and ICDS in all parts of the country by 2024 in a phased manner.
- Currently, the pilot scheme is being implemented in 11 districts.
Fortification of Rice:
- It refers to the addition of key vitamins and minerals to increase the nutritional value of rice.
- The fortified Rice generally contains Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Iron and Zinc.
- A review, conducted by Food Fortification Initiative indicated that iron deficiency, ferritin, haemoglobin and anaemia recorded a significant improvement in the intervention group.
- Another study found signiﬁcant improvements in cognitive test scores and haemoglobin concentrations, and reduction in anaemia in the intervention group.
Context- India has been unanimously elected for the new Chairmanship of the International Rubber Study Group (IRSG).
- Head of the Indian delegation to IRSG, and Executive Director of Indian Rubber Board, KN Raghavan, will oﬃciate as the Chairman of IRSG for the next two years.
International Rubber Study Group (IRSG):
- IRSG is the inter-governmental organisation of natural rubber (NR) and synthetic rubber (SR) producing and consuming countries.
- The group was formed in the year 1944 with Singapore as headquarters.
- The IRSG provides its member governments with a forum for discussion on matters aﬀecting the world rubber industry and acts as an interface between government and the Industry.
- It is the only International commodity body approved by Common Fund for Commodities for development ﬁnancing in rubber sector.
- Rubber is a tropical tree.
- It requires high temperature throughout the year – ranging between 20°-35°C or average monthly mean of 27°C.
- Less than 20°C temperature is detrimental.
- Rubber also requires heavy rainfall.
- The annual average rainfall of not less than 200 cm is optimum. Rubber tree thrives well when the distribution of rainfall is uniformly high all over the year.
- Deep, friable, well-drained soils are ideal as they promote root development, and acidic soils are also suitable.
- Thailand is the highest rubber producer in the world, which produced 31.29 per cent of world production. Indonesia is the second largest producer.
- In the world production of natural rubber, India ranks Fourth.
- Traditional rubber-growing states comprising Kerala and Tamil Nadu account for 81% of production.
Context- India is pushing for rapid adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) but it does not have certain minerals that are required for batteries that are crucial to powering this transition.
- A latest study by the World Resources Institute suggests that India should focus on ensuring adequate long-term arrangements with other countries to procure such minerals and ensure a smooth path for EVs.
About the Report:
- Batteries are a crucial requirement for electric vehicles (EVs) and minerals such as cobalt and lithium are crucial for making these batteries.
- According to the report, batteries require eight key raw materials including manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), graphite and titanium (Ti).
- India has existing reserves of Mn, Ni, Cu, and Al.
- India has no reserves of the other raw materials (Li).
- Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme by NITI Aayog, which subsidises the setting up of Li-ion cell-manufacturing gigafactories.
- NITI Aayog plans to transition three-wheelers to full EVs by 2023 and two-wheelers with an engine capacity of less than 150cc to full EVs by 2025.
- For the raw materials that India lacks, locking in arrangements now to procure ores or concentrates from other countries in the future would be extremely advantageous.
- The report suggested that infrastructure for recycling Li-ion batteries should be set up in parallel with the development of Gigafactories and other battery-industry-related efforts.
- It also highlighted that Indian companies need to focus on increasing the budget for R&D (Research and Development) to make rapid advances in battery technologies.
Context- The Supreme Court issued notices to the Centre and states in a writ petition filed by advocate Durga Dutt seeking the enforcement of the fundamental duties of citizens as enshrined in the Constitution of India.
- The fundamental duties were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976 on the recommendation of Swaran Singh committee.
- Article 51(A) describes 11 fundamental duties — 10 came with the 42nd Amendment; the 11th was added by the 86th Amendment in 2002.
- These duties are not enforceable by law.
- However, a court may take them into account while adjudicating on a matter.
- The Russian Constitution has the concept of fundamental duties.
- Article 51(A) says it shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
- (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
- (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
- (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
- (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
- (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
- (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
- (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
- (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
- (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
- (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
- (k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.
Context- India and South Africa, piloted a proposal to waive key provisions of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement on Covid-19 vaccines, drugs, therapeutics, and related technologies.
- The core idea behind the proposal is that intellectual property (IP) rights such as patents should not become a barrier in scaling up the production of medical products like vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics essential to combat Covid-19.
- The TRIPS waiver proposal would give immunity to member countries from a legal challenge at the WTO if their domestic Intellectual Property Regulation (IPR) laws suspend or do not enforce IP protection.
- The TRIPS agreement was negotiated in 1995 at the WTO, it requires all its signatory countries to enact domestic law.
- It guarantees minimum standards of IP protection.
- It enables innovators to monetise their intellectual property in multiple countries.
- In 2001, the WTO signed the Doha Declaration, which clarified that in a public health emergency, governments could compel companies to license their patents to manufacturers, even if they did not think the offered price was acceptable.
- This provision, commonly referred to as “compulsory licensing”.
- Under Section 92 of the 1970 Indian Patents Act, the central government has the power to allow compulsory licenses to be issued at any time in case of a national emergency or circumstances of extreme urgency.