Daily Prelims Notes 25 February 2022
- February 25, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
25 February 2022
Table Of Contents
- MUGHAL ERA COINS
- GST INVOICES
- Tribunal Reforms Act 2021
- UKRAINE AGRI STATISTICS
- TRADE IMPACTS OF RUSSIA- UKRAINE CONFLICT
- RIVER INTERLINKING
- BHAKTI SAINT NARSINGH MEHTA
- MINIMUM SELLING PRICE
- QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION
- STEM CELL THERAPY
- SRI GOVINDARAJA TEMPLE TIRUPATI
TOPIC: Art & Culture
Context- A piece of antiquity billed as a rarity — a one-rupee silver coin struck at Kabul mint by Shah Jahan to declare rebellion against his father Jahangir in 1627 — is going under the hammer in Bengaluru on February 26.
- The coin has been struck at Kabul in the name of Khurram, the pre-accession name of Shah Jahan.
- The coin was an important aspect in the power struggle between Jahangir and his ﬁrst son Khurram (Shah Jahan).
- The standard gold coin of the Mughals was the Mohur.
- AbulFazl in his ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ indicated that a Mohur was equivalent to nine rupees. Half and quarter mohurs are also known.
- The silver rupee which was an adoption from Sher Shah’s currency, was the most famous of all Mughal coins.
- Akbar issued both round and square coins.
- In 1579, he issued gold coins called Ilahi coins to propagate his new religious creed ‘Din-i-Illahi’. O
- n this coin, it was written ‘God is great, may his glory be glorified’.
- Sahansah was the largest gold coin.
- These coins bore the names of the persian solar months.
- Jahangir showed the legend in a couplet in the coins. In some of his coins, he added the name of his beloved wife Noorjahan. The most famous of his coins had images of Zodiac signs.
- Shah Jahan continued striking coins in three metals i.e. gold (mohur), silver (rupee) and copper (dam).
- His pre-accession coins bear the name Khurram.
- Rare coins were struck in the name of Khurram during the early reign of Shah Jahan in the mints of Lahore and Kabul.
Context- Finance Ministry is considering more measures to curb fake invoices under Goods & Services Tax.
What motivates fraudsters to use fake invoices?
- Fake invoices are used because it not only helps evade GST on taxable output supplies by availing undue ITC and converting excess ITC into cash but also helps in inflating turnover using these invoices, booking fake purchases to evade income tax, diversion of funds and money laundering.
Provisions to curb fake invoices in GST Act:
- As per Section 132 of CGST Act 2017, issuance of an invoice or bill without supply of goods or services and wrongful availing or utilising Input Tax Credit is a cognizable and non-bailable oﬀence if the amount is over ₹5 crore.
- The law prescribes a registered person to declare supply in return form, GSTR 1 and pay tax with the ﬁling of return form GSTR 3B.
- As per the new rule to be implemented from January 2022: tax- payer will not be allowed to ﬁle the GSTR-1 for the subsequent month, till the GSTR-3B is ﬁled.
Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs:
- It is a part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance.
- The Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) was renamed as the CBIC in 2018 after the roll out of the GST.
- It deals with the tasks of formulation of policy concerning levy and collection of customs, central excise duties, Central GST (CGST) and Integrated GST (IGST).
Context- The Supreme Court on Thursday said the government’s move to introduce a statute last year on key tribunals after the court struck down Tribunal Reforms (Rationalisation and Conditions of Service) Ordinance of 2021. may amount to dishonouring its judgment.
Tribunal Reforms Act, 2021: Salient Features:
- The Act absolves certain appellate tribunals/boards and shifts their functions to other existing judicial bodies such as high courts.
- It seeks to abolish certain appellate tribunals (for example, the Film Certification Appellate Tribunal, Airports Appellate Tribunal, etc.) and also bring in changes in the terms of service of the tribunal officials.
- Search-cum-Selection Committees will be constituted and on the basis of the recommendations of these committees, the Central Government would appoint chairpersons and members of tribunals.
- The composition of the committees are as follows:
- Chief Justice of India (CJI) OR a Supreme Court judge nominated by the CJI, as the Chairperson (with casting vote)
- Two central government-nominated secretaries
- Sitting or outgoing Chairperson, or a retired Supreme Court judge, or a retired Chief Justice of a High Court
- Sitting chairperson – in case of appointment of a member of a tribunal (the sitting chairperson of that tribunal)
- Outgoing chairperson – in case of appointment of a chairperson of a tribunal (the outgoing chairperson of that tribunal)
- Retired SC judge/retired HC Chief Justice – in case of a tribunal’s Chairperson seeking reappointment.
- Secretary of the Union Ministry under which the tribunal is to be constituted (with no voting rights)
- There shall be separate Search-cum-Selection Committees for State administrative tribunals.
- The composition of the committees are as follows:
- The Act provides for a four-year tenure.
- The Chairperson shall be of a minimum of fifty years of age.
- The tenure is either four years or 67 years whichever is earlier, in case of a member.
- For chairpersons, it is either four years or 70 years, whichever is earlier.
Context- The escalating strife between Ukraine and Russia is expected to impact barley prices and this could aﬀect domestic beer companies, which are already reeling under high costs of packaging material.
- Barley accounts for 30 per cent of raw material costs for United Breweries.
- Ukraine is among the top-5 global producers of barley, accounting for 18 per cent of global barley exports in CY22.
- Malting involves soaking barley in water for 25-26 hours to allow germination, which activate certain “amylase” enzymes that convert the raw starch in the grain into fermentable sugars (glucose and maltose).
- Beer makers require barley with high carbohydrate (65-75 per cent) and lowprotein (9-11 per cent) content, as against 60-65 per cent and 12-14 per cent respectively in normal feed-grade grains.
- Barley is a popular cereal grain (in India also known as jau).
- Barley is the fourth most important cereal after rice, wheat and maize.
- It is used in many preparations of food after being converted into malt.
- It is used as food and fodder.
- It is primarily used in beer, feed manufacturing and food processing industries.
- More than 90% of malt production in the world happens from barley.
- Major producers of barley in the world are European Union, Russia, Ukraine, Canada, Australia, USA and Australia.
- In India, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are major producers of barley.
Context- The Russia-Ukraine conflict could weigh heavily on India’s tea exports to the CIS if the situation does not settle down quickly.
- Impact on India Tea Exports: Tea exports to CIS account for nearly 23-24 per cent of the country’s total exports.
- Of this, exports to Russian Federation stood at 30.89 mkg, nearly 77 per cent of the total exports to the CIS. Russia is a long term and a very stable market for Indian tea.
- Impacts on Oil & Gas: The Russia-Ukraine war will also have a big bearing on global natural gas markets, since Russia produces nearly 17 per cent of natural gas and has a 25 per cent share of total gas exports.
- Impact on Metals: Russia contributes almost 12 per cent to global trade in aluminium. Any sanction imposed on Russian aluminium exports will aggravate the metal availability in the rest of the world.
About Commonwealth of Independent Nations:
- Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created in December 1991.
- In the adopted Declaration the participants of the Commonwealth declared their interaction on the basis of sovereign equality.
- Members : Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.
Context- The Finance Minister In Budget 2022 announced that “Draft DPRs (Detailed Project Reports) of the ﬁve river links along with the implementation of the Ken-Betwa Link Project
The Five River Links Include:
- Par- Tapi-Narmada,
- Krishna-Pennar and
About Ken Betwa Link Project:
- The Ken-Betwa Link project proposes to transfer water from the Ken river to the Betwa — both tributaries of Yamuna.
- This link project will have a canal network of 221 km.
- The water-starved Bundelkhand region in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh covering a total of 13 districts will primarily beneﬁt from this project.
About River Interlinking:
- The RLP involves the process of diverting surplus river water through a network of canals to water-starved areas either within or outside a State.
- The proposal for interlinking of rivers in India dates back to proposals made by Sir Arthur Cotton and K.L. Rao in the 19th century.
- Under the NPP (National Perspective Plan) 1980s, the National Water Development Agency (NWDA) identiﬁed 14 river links in the northern Himalayan river development component and 16 in the southern peninsular river development component for inter-basin transfer of water.
TOPIC: Art & Culture
Context- Researchers in Gujarat have discovered a new species of spider and named it Narsinhmehtai, in honour of Narsinh Mehta, a 15th century poet who was a devotee of Lord Krishna.
About Narsingh Mehta:
- Narsinh Mehta, also known as Narsi Mehta or NarsiBhagat, was a 15th-century poet-saint of Gujarat, India, notable as a bhakta, an exponent of Vaishnava poetry.
- Mehta is believed to have been born in Talaja in present-day Bhavnagar district in 1410 and died in Junagadh in 1480s.
- Mehta is regarded as adikavi (the first poet) and bhaktakavi (devout poet) in Gujarati literature.
- Mehta penned more than 750 poems, called padd in Gujarat. They mainly deal with devotion to Lord Krishna, gyan (wisdom) vairagya (detachment from worldly affairs).
- His bhajanVaishnav Jan To was Mahatma Gandhi’s favorite and has become synonymous with him.
Context- MSPs provide a floor for market prices, and ensure that farmers receive a certain “minimum” remuneration so that their costs of cultivation (and some profit) can be recovered.
Minimum Support Price (MSP):
- Minimum Support Price (MSP) is the minimum price set by the government for certain agricultural products, at which the products would directly be bought from the farmers if the open market prices are less than the cost incurred.
- MSPs provide a floor for market prices, and ensure that farmers receive a certain “minimum” remuneration so that their costs of cultivation (and some profit) can be recovered.
Crops covered by MSPs include:
- 7 types of cereals (paddy, wheat, maize, bajra, jowar, ragi and barley),
- 5 types of pulses (chana, arhar/tur, urad, moong and masur),
- 7 oilseeds (rapeseed-mustard, groundnut, soyabean, sunflower, sesamum, safflower, nigerseed),
- 4 commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane, copra, raw jute)
Who decides what the MSP?
- The MSPs are announced by the Union government based on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
- While recommending MSPs, the CACP looks at the following factors:
- the demand and supply of a commodity;
- its cost of production;
- the market price trends (both domestic and international);
- inter-crop price parity;
- the terms of trade between agriculture and non-agriculture (that is, the ratio of prices of farm inputs and farm outputs);
- a minimum of 50 per cent as the margin over the cost of production; and
- the likely implications of an MSP on consumers of that product.
- The government does not procure all farm produce at MSPs. Actual procurement (at MSP) varies with crop and geography. Also, MSPs have no statutory backing.
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- Experts from DRDO and IIT Delhi have demonstrated Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) link for a distance of over 100 kilometres between Prayagraj and Vindhyachal in Uttar Pradesh.
About Quantum Key Distribution Network:
- QKD is primarily a mechanism to undertake secure communication, which utilises a cryptographic protocol involving various components of quantum mechanics.
- Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents.
- The technology enables two communicating sides to come up with random secret keys shared by both of them and known exclusively to them, so only they can use it to encrypt and decrypt messages, thus achieving a very highly-secure communication.
- In the QKD, encryption keys are sent as ‘qubits’ (or quantum bits) in an optical fibre.
- Optical Fibres works on the principle of total internal Reflections.
- It is designed in a way that if an illegitimate entity tries to read the transmission, it will disturb the qubits – which are encoded on photons.
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- A US patient has become the third person in the world, and the first woman, to be cured of HIV, the deadly virus that causes AIDS using umbilical cord blood.
Umbilical Cord Blood:
- The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that, during pregnancy, connects the fetus to the mother.
- Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of stem cells, and preserving it for future use.
- It contains special cells called hematopoietic stem cells that can be used to treat some types of diseases.
- Hematopoietic stem cells can mature into different types of blood cells in the body.
- Hematopoietic stem cells are derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Stem Cell Therapy:
- Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
- Stem cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, promotes the repair response of diseased, dysfunctional or injured tissue using stem cells or their derivatives.
- Stem cells can then be implanted into a person.
- Stem cells are the cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated.
- Under certain conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.
- These daughter cells either become new stem cells (self-renewal) or become specialized cells (differentiation) with a more specific function, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle cells or bone cells.
- No other cell in the body has the natural ability to generate new cell types.
- HIV is a ribonucleic acid virus.
- HIV attacks CD4, a type of White Blood Cell (T cells) in the body’s immune system. T cells are those cells that move around the body detecting anomalies and infections in cells.
- HIV is transmitted from person to person through bodily fluids including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, anal fluids and breast milk.
TOPIC: Art & Culture
Context- Tirupati wears a festive look as it celebrates 892nd birthday on Thursday.
About Govindaraja Temple:
- Sri GovindarajaPerumal temple (known as Thiruchitrakoodam) has the unique distinction of being located on the world famous Chidambaram Nataraja (Bhagwan Shiva) temple complex in the temple town of Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu.
- Along with Nilathingal Thundam Perumal temple, these are two rare Divyadesam Vaishnava shrines that have Bhagwan Vishnu along with Bhagwan Shiva as presiding deities.
- The Shaivite King Kulothunga Chola II is believed to have removed the presiding Govindaraja murti from the shrine in Chidambaram.
Sri Govindaraja Temple From Chidambaram to Tirupati:
- According to inscriptions, it was on February 24 in the year 1130 that Vaishnavite saint Bhagawad Ramanuja laid the foundation stone for the temple
- The earliest of the records available on this temple at Tirupati belong to the year 1235 A.D when the Chola King, Raja Raja III was ruling the place.
- The temple came into prominence in 1506 A.D. during the rule of Saluva dynasty of Vijayanagar and from then onwards different rulers in a different way developed the temple.
- In the 16th century, king Krishnappa Nayak of Madurai Nayak dynasty, expanded the Madurai Kingdom. He was instrumental in installing the murti of Govindaraja back in the Chidambaram Nataraja temple.