Daily Prelims Notes 29 March 2021
- March 29, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
29 March 2021
Table Of Contents
- FREE MOVEMENT REGIME
- PUBLIC ACCOUNTS COMMITTEE
- COMPOSITE WATER MANAGEMENT INDEX
- JUDICIAL REVIEW
- PRESIDENTIAL ASSENT
- ULPIN SCHEME
- AVIAN INFLUENZA
Subject: Internal Security
Context: In halls, safehouses, Myanmar nationals pray India does not send them back: ‘will be killed’.
Free movement regime (FMR)
- The formation of Myanmar as a separate State in 1935 and decolonisation of the sub-continent in 1947 divided ethnic communities living along the Indo-Myanmar border.
- These communities, particularly Nagas, found the newly created boundary to be inconsistent with the traditional limits of the region they inhabited. And they felt a deep sense of insecurity because they became relegated to the status of ethnic minorities on both sides of the border.
- To address their concerns and enable greater interaction among them, the Indian and Myanmarese governments established the Free Movement Regime (FMR), which allowed Nagas to travel 16 kilometres across the border on either side without any visa requirements.
- Both countries are intend to put common system in place to append India’s concerns.
Why FMP is causing issues now?
- Free movement regime is being misused by militants and trans-border criminals who smuggle weapons, contraband goods and fake Indian currency notes.
- Taking advantage of the free-movement regime, occasionally they enter India, commit crimes and escape to their relatively safer hideouts.
Subject : Polity
Context : Amid the hectic campaigning in West Bengal, Congress leader AdhirRanjan Chowdhury made a dash to Delhi on Friday to chair a meeting of the Public Accounts Committee.
- The committee was first mentioned in the Montagu and Chelmsford Reforms or the Government of India Act 1919 but it came into existence only in 1921.
- It examines the annual audit reports and is responsible for mainly taking care of public expenditure to check for any kind of fraud, mal-functioning, waste, or extravagance in the funds utilized in the government projects that are being undertaken.
Members of the Public Accounts Committee (PAC)
- The committee comprises 22 members. 15 from the Lok Sabha (or the Lower House) and 7 from the Rajya Sabha (or the Upper House).
- He or She cannot be a minister in the Cabinet.
- The members are elected from the members of the Parliament by conducting an election by Proportional Representation by means of the Single Transferable Voting System (PRSTV).
- Every member elected by the Parliament holds office for a year after which fresh elections take place and a new set of committee members are elected.
Chairperson of the Public Accounts Committee
- The Speaker of the Lok Sabha elects the Chairperson of the Public Accounts Committee from amongst its members.
- Though initially, the Chairperson used to be appointed from the ruling party it was later decided to appoint the chairperson from the opposition party invariably.
Functions of the Public Accounts Committee
- Examines the financial accounts and the appropriation accounts of the Central Government which is made by the Lok Sabha.
- Scrutinizes audit reports made by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India to make sure it is justified and no fraud or mistakes have been made. It also ensures that the money used is legally available and also conforms to the cause it’s needed for, to avoid extravagance and wastage.
- Examines accounts of State Corporations, Trading Concerns, and Manufacturing Products.
- Examines the accounts of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Bodies.
- It keeps check of any money spent on any service availed or utilized in the year and makes a thorough report of it.
- The CAG is responsible for assisting the PAC throughout the year through all its activities.
Subject : International Organisations
Context : “For the rural poor, rice and wheat were aspirational foods. An expanded public distribution system has provided them access to these maheenanaaj (fine grains), which is distinguished from motaanaaj (coarse grains),” says Meera Mishra, Country Programme Officer for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD).
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- It was Set up in 1977.
- It is 13th specialised agency of the United Nations.
- India is a founder member of IFAD and a key contributor among the member countries.
- IFAD works towards removing poverty and hunger in rural areas all over the world, especially in developing countries.
- Its goal is to empower poor rural men and women in developing countries to achieve higher incomes and improved food security.
- IFAD is managed by the two main governing bodies i.e. the Governing Council and the Executive Board.
- The Governing Council is the highest decision-making body of IFAD.
Subject : National Report
Context : As per the Composite Water Management Index of Niti Aayog (2019), 75% households in India do not have access to drinking water on their premises, and India ranks 120th amongst 122 countries in the water quality index.
- The Composite Water Management Index report is a step in a direction that aims to create awareness among people and governments about the realities of water crisis in the country.
- CWMI aims to enable effective water management in Indian states in the face of this growing crisis.
- The index would provide useful information for the states and concerned Central ministries and departments enabling them to formulate and implement suitable strategies for better management of water resources.
- NITI Aayog has ranked all states in the index on the composite water management, comprising 9 broad sectors with 28 different indicators covering various aspects of ground water, restoration of water bodies, irrigation, farm practices, drinking water, policy and governance.
Subject : Polity
Context : A PIL in Supreme Court has sought that 26 verses of the Quran be declared unconstitutional and non-functional. A look at the limitations of judicial review where a holy book is concerned, various aspects of the petition, the deeper context of the verses flagged by the petitioner, and a previous plea on the Quran.
- It is a type of court proceeding in which a judge reviews the lawfulness of a decision or action made by a public body.
- In other words, judicial reviews are a challenge to the way in which a decision has been made, rather than the rights and wrongs of the conclusion reached.
Concepts of Law:
- Procedure Established by Law: It means that a law enacted by the legislature or the concerned body is valid only if the correct procedure has been followed to the letter.
- Due Process of Law: It is a doctrine that not only checks if there is a law to deprive the life and personal liberty of a person but also ensures that the law is made fair and just.
- India follows Procedure Established by Law.
- It is the power exerted by the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislatures, executive and administrative arms of government and to ensure that such actions conform to the provisions of the nation’s Constitution.
- Judicial review has two important functions, like, of legitimizing government action and the protection of constitution against any undue encroachment by the government.
- Judicial review is considered a basic structure of the constitution (Indira Gandhi vs Raj Narain Case 1975).
- Judicial review is also called the interpretational and observer roles of the Indian judiciary.
- Suo Moto cases and the Public Interest Litigation (PIL), with the discontinuation of the principle of Locus Standi, have allowed the judiciary to intervene in many public issues, even when there is no complaint from the aggrieved party.
Types of Judicial Review:
- Reviews of Legislative Actions: This review implies the power to ensure that laws passed by the legislature are in compliance with the provisions of the Constitution.
- Review of Administrative Actions: This is a tool for enforcing constitutional discipline over administrative agencies while exercising their powers.
- Review of Judicial Decisions: This review is used to correct or make any change in previous decisions by the judiciary itself.
Subject : Polity
Context :President Ram NathKovind gave his assent to the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021.
- Indian President has three approaches to the bill forwarded to him by the central or state legislature:
He can either give assent,
He can withhold his assent or
He can return the bill for reconsideration generally (depends on the type of bill).
Assent to Ordinary Bill
- In case of an ordinary bill, there are three courses of action the President can do:
- Give his assent: the bill then becomes an act.
- Withhold his assent: the bill ends there and does not become as act.
- Return the bill for reconsideration: the Houses may make changes or not to the bill and return it to the President after which he is obliged to give his assent.
Assent to Money Bill
- The President may either give or withhold assent to a Money Bill. Under the Constitution, a Money Bill cannot be returned to the House by the President for reconsideration.
Assent to Constitutional Amendment Bill
- In the case of such bills, the President must give assent. He cannot return the bill or withhold it (unlike ordinary bills). After this, the bill becomes a Constitutional Amendment Act and the Constitution stands amended in accordance with the terms of the Act.
Subject : Government Schemes
Context : Centre to Launch Unique ID Number for All Plots of Land by 2022: Report
- This plan has been laid out in a parliamentary standing committee report submitted to the Lok Sabha last week, as part of the Digital India Land Records ModernisationProgramme (DILRMP) which began in 2008 and has been expanded several times.
- The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme, as it is being called, has already been rolled out in 10 states, the report quotes the Department of Land Resources, and will be extended across the country by March 2022.
- The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) System will have 14 digits – Alpha-numeric unique ID for each land parcel.
- The Unique IDs based on Geo reference coordinate of vertices of the parcel would be of international standard and compliance of the Electronic Commerce Code Management Association (ECCMA) standard and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and it will provide compatibility so that all states can adopt it easily.
- Proper land statistics and land accounting through ULPIN will help develop land bank and lead towards Integrated Land Information Management System (ILIMS).
Subject: Science & tech
Context: Avian influenza (H5N1) led to the death of over 5,000 migratory birds in the Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary area in Kangra district.
- Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting several species of food-producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds.
- Occasionally mammals, including humans, may contract avian influenza.
- Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface proteins, Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). For example, a virus that has an HA 7 protein and NA 9 protein is designated as subtype H7N9.
- Avian influenza virus subtypes include A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and A(H9N2).
- HPAI A(H5N1) virus occurs mainly in birds and is highly contagious among them.
- HPAI Asian H5N1 is especially deadly for poultry.
- Prevention: Strict biosecurity measures and good hygiene are essential in protecting against disease outbreaks.
- Eradication: If the infection is detected in animals, a policy of culling infected and contact animals is normally used in an effort to rapidly contain, control and eradicate the disease.