Daily Prelims Notes 3 March 2021
- March 3, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
3 March 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- Prosopis juliflora or vilayati kikar
- Dard Aryan tribe
- Art and Craft at display at Dilli Haat
- Western Container terminal project (WCT) – Sri Lanka
- Surya Prakash Committee
- Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Act 2021
- Kringlerne Rare earth Deposit
- Sagar-Manthan: Mercantile Marine Domain Awareness Centre (MMDAC)
- Jamsetji Tata
- World Wildlife Day
- Cost Push inflation
- Blood Thinner
- Himalayan serow
Context: Expert panel heading the revival project of Central ridge in Delhi said by removing a few branches of “Kikar” tree will help sunlight to break through and full-grown saplings can be planted in such places to control pollution effectively.
- Panel has been working for proposals for restoring over 400 hectares of the Central Ridge.
- It recommends replacing few branches of “Kikar” (can’t be totally removed as it is a notified forest) and replace that with full-grown forest having three-layer canopy, and broad-leaved trees, and shrubs (polluted air will pass through the bottom layer of the forest and move up, or vice versa, and that will sieve out fine particles in the air).
- It will also put less stress on groundwater.
About “Vilayati Kikari”
- It is an invasive tree species introduced under the British Empire in 1930s (native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean) as part of development of Delhi.
- Its leaves are small and smooth.
- Concern over the tree is it does not let any other tree or shrubs survive around it. These trees can dry up underground aquifers through its deep-root system, going as far as 20 metres or more in search of water, significantly higher than around 5 metres that native shrubs and trees go.
- The tree’s canopy is such that it does not let sunlight reach the ground, which also hinders growth of other species.
- The ridge is a reserved forest of about 7,700 hectares and the northern extension of the Aravalli Range is in National Capital Region of Delhi.
- It lies in the Northern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor.
- The Delhi Ridge acts as the green lungs for the city and protects Delhi from the hot winds of the deserts of Rajasthan to the west.
- Delhi ridge acts as water divide between Indus and Brahmaputra drainage system.
- Central ridge is part of Delhi ridge.
Subject: Art and Culture
Context: At second edition of “Enchanting Ladakh”, the annual art and craft fair organised by the Union territory’s Department of Industries and Commerce at Dilli Haat saw participation of Dard Aryan tribe.
- They are a Buddhist group living 200 km from Leh are the villages of Dha, Hanu, Garkone and Darchik (villages together called “Aryan valley”) on both sides of the Indus River.
- The word ‘Dard’ is derived from a Sanskrit word, ‘Daradas’, which means people who live on hillsides.
- They are culturally and linguistically different from other tribes in region.
- There is one view that they are “Aryans of Ladakh” or the “Brokpas” who might have descended from soldiers in Alexander’s army who had come to the region over 2,000 years ago.
- They rear goat and sheep for milk and meat, and their festivals are based on the solar calendar. Their tradition go back 5,000 years. They worship trees, rivers and mountains.
- They wear heavy fur costumes, flower bouquets adorning their heads.
- The community prohibits marriage with outsiders to keep the gene pool intact.
- They are dependent on agriculture.
- The apricots grown here are considered among the best in the world and there are 12 varieties of grapes in the region and valley is famous for grape-wine.
- Modernisation, migration and religious conversion (many in last decade embraced Islam or Buddhism) are threat to the community (only around 4000 remaining).
- Some of the areas of the Aryan valley are out of bounds for outsiders, since it borders Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.
Subject: Art and Culture
Context: Monks from Hemis monastery and display Madhubani paintings and Lucknowichikan kurtas etc. were major attraction at the art and culture festival at Dilli Haat.
About Hemis monastery
- It is the largest monastic institution in Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir in north India.
- It was re-established in 1672 by the Ladakhi king SenggeNamgyal.
- The annual Hemis festival honouringPadmasambhava is held there in early June.
- Padmasambhava, also known as Guru Rinpoche is considered incarnated as a fully enlightened being.
- Padmasambhava is considered the Second Buddha by the Nyingma school, the oldest Buddhist school in Tibet known as “the ancient ones”.
About Madhubani painting
- It is practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar and Nepal and called Mithila or Madhubani art. Often characterized by complex geometrical patterns, these paintings are known for representing ritual content for particular occasions, including festivals, religious rituals, etc.
- The colors used in Madhubani paintings are usually derived from plants and other natural sources. These colors are often bright and pigments like lampblack and ochre are used to create black and brown respectively. Instead of contemporary brushes, objects like twigs, matchsticks and even fingers are used to create the paintings.
- Paintings are largely made using powdered rice, colors derived from turmeric, pollen, pigments, indigo, various flowers, sandalwood, and leaves of various plants and trees, etc.
- Mainly performed by women. It is also done on the occasion of festivities, particularly marriage.
- Traditionally Plastered mud was the base which has been today replaced with canvas, paper and cloth.
- Paintings are also known for their simplicity, for the brush and colors used are often derived from natural sources.
Chikankari of Lucknow
- It is a traditional embroidery style from Lucknow. It is considered Lucknow’s best textile decoration styles.
- It is delicate and subtle embroidery done in white thread on varieties of cloth such as mulmul (fine cotton), voil or polyester
- It is also known as “Shadow work” for its intricate and complex design and work.
Subject: International relations
Context: After walking out of the Eastern Container Terminal, the Sri Lanka has offered West Container Terminal (WCT) to Indian and Japanese companies with 85% stakes.
- The WCT is strategically located next to a $500-million Chinese-run container jetty within Colombo’s sprawling port.
- The project will be on Build, Operate and Transfer basis for a period of 35 years as a public-private partnership with Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Limited and its local representative John Keels Holding PLC, and the Sri Lanka Ports Authority.
Context: The govt had accepted the committee suggestion that Parliament should have only one channel, which could be called Sansad TV.
- A 6-member committee was constituted in November 2019 headed by PrasarBharati Chairman Surya Prakash to work out the modalities and prepare the guidelines for pooling resources, manpower and technology for the merger of the RSTV and LSTV.
- The need was felt as Parliament is in session for close to 100 days in a year and thus for the remaining period there is really no need for two channels.
- Panel also said that the Sansad TV could have two platforms to telecast live the proceedings of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha during Sessions though Sansad 1 and Sansad 2 and could broadcast the same programme, in Hindi and English respectively, during the inter-Session period.
- However, no decision has been taken on this suggestion yet.
Context: Haryana passed the law giving 75% of reservation in private sector for job seekers from Haryana.
- The law will apply to all the companies, societies, trusts, limited liability partnership firms, partnership firms and any person employing 10 or more persons and an entity as may be notified by the government from time to time
- Earlier Andhra Pradesh became the first state in the country to introduce local reservation in private sector in 2019.
- It is to be seen if such laws are constitutionally valid or not as it is seen as violation of Art 16: “Article 16 specifically states that no citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State”.
Subject: World Geography
Context: The Greenland, a self-governing territory of the Kingdom o Denmark is witnessing bad side of green power derived from Rare earth
- The world’s biggest island has huge resources of metals known as ‘rare earths,’ used to help power equipment such as wind turbines and electric vehicles.
- Warming temperatures are melting away ice sheets, making Greenland’s riches more accessible.
- The most important known REE deposits of Greenland are in the world-class Kvanefjeld and Kringlerne deposits.
Subject: Science and technology
Context: the Centre garnered ₹77,814.80 crore in revenues in spectrum auction. It exceeded the expectation as Telcos focused on renewing expiring spectrum and consolidating holdings in select bands.
- It is the invisible radio frequencies (used for communication) that wireless signals travel over.
- The frequencies we use for wireless are only a portion of what is called the electromagnetic spectrum (encompasses other frequencies we interact with daily).
- VIGBYOR represents colors that make up the visible part of spectrum. Other parts of spectrum carry broadcast radio and television or serve other everyday functions.
- Spectrum wavelengths are classified into different bands within the electromagnetic spectrum range:
- The entire electronic spectrum ranges from three Hz (extremely low frequency) to 300 EHz (gamma rays). The portion used for wireless communication sits within that space and ranges from about 20 KHz to 300 GHz.
How does spectrum work?
- Different bands have slightly different characteristics. Generally in case of communication the spectrum is divided in three categories: low, mid, and high-band spectrum.
- Low-band spectrum (under 3 GHz):Travels longer distances with minimal signal interruption. Most wireless networks are built primarily on low-band spectrum, and the wireless industry has used this spectrum to build high-speed wireless networks
- High-band spectrum (above 24 GHz) travels much shorter distances (e., in meters), but offers high capacity and ultra-fast speeds.
- Mid-band spectrum (between 3 and 24 GHz) blends the characteristics of both low- and high-band spectrum—providing a mix of coverage and capacity.
- These frequencies are transmitted between cell sites (cell towers) and our mobile devices.
- Spectrum is a finite resource and hence its efficient management through auction is needed. The Union government through DoT owns all the publicly available assets within the geographical boundaries of the country, which also include airwaves.
Context: On the eve of Maritime India summit 2021 India launched a vessel tracking system.
- Announcement was also made on The Eastern Waterways Connectivity Transport Grid for regional connectivity with Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar will be strengthened for effective regional trade and cooperation
- It is a real-time vehicle tracking system which can help seafarers and fishermen and organize help in case of emergency.
- It will track Indian vessels globally; it can also track foreign vessels within 1,000-km of India’s coastline.
- It will be operated by DG Shipping. India will share it with Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
- The MMDAC facility also has elements of security, for which DG Shipping collaborates with the Indian Navy
Subject: Modern Indian History
Context: It is the 182nd birth anniversary of Jamsetji Tata, hailed as the original “Make-in-India” man.
- He believed that the strength to defend freedom can itself only come from widespread industrialisation and the infusion of modern science and technology into the country’s economic life.
- In spite of challenges, he studied Iron and steel industry for 20 years and laid the foundation of Iron and steel industry (though didn’t live to see it) as Tata Iron and Steel Company (Tata Steel) rolled out steel in 1912 at Jamshedpur.
- He believed for self-reliance economic empowerment can only be sustained if India acquired scientific and technological prowess to power its progress: He set aside half his personal wealth for world-class institute of advanced studies to promote original investigations in all branches of learning and utilise them for the benefit of India (eventually materialized as the Indian Institute of Science (IISc))
- Jamsetji launched his Scholarship Scheme for Higher Education for Indians in 1892. By the 1920s, one in five Indians in the Indian Civil Service was a JN Tata Scholar.
Context: 3rd march is celebrated as World Wildlife day.
- The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 3 March as UN World Wildlife Day in 2013 to celebrate and raise awareness of the world’s flora and fauna and celebrating biodiversity on planet.
- The day was dedicated to keeping people aware and updated about the changing nature of the world and the flora and fauna that are constantly threatened by human activities.
- CITES Secretariat was designated as the facilitator for the global observance of World Wildlife Day.
- Theme 2021: “Forests and Livelihoods: Sustaining People and Planet”.
Context: The Government data shows a 2.7-37 per cent increase in prices of food items within a month’s time is pushing up the inflation.
- It is the situation when overall prices increase due to increases in the cost of wages and raw materials.
- The current rise in cost of production is driven by surge in diesel prices and higher temperature affecting crops, rise in commodity price globally (due to dollar depreciation and is partly driven by expected increase in demand), increase in international freight rates
- Higher costs of production can decrease the aggregate supply (the amount of total production) in the economy.
- With not much change in demand for goods the price increases from production are passed onto consumers creating cost-push inflation.
Context: The Minister of Petroleum and natural gases at an event Global Bio India 2021, organised by Department of Biotechnology said push for setting up twelve bio refineries or 2G-ethanol commercial plants from agriculture waste across eleven states is going on.
- It will help India in ethanol blending programme for achieving 20 per cent ethanol-blending in petrol by 2025.
- Bio-refinery integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value-added chemicals from biomass.
- Thus, it seeks to maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock.
- It mimics existing petroleum refineries while meeting energy needs and reducing the massive greenhouse gas emissions from oil production.
- National Policy on Biofuels emphasizes on increasing production using second generation bio-refineries and developing new feedstock for biofuels. It allowed the production of ethanol from damaged food grains like wheat and broken rice, which are unfit for human consumption.
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: The ICMR director said that both the vaccines available in India are safe for use for beneficiaries on blood thinners.
- These are medications taken orally or intravenously (through a vein) to prevent a blood clot (blood clot stop the flow of blood to the heart, lungs, or brain leading to heart attack or stroke).
- Medication is sometimes done after international normalized ratio (INR) test i.e., rate at which blood clots.
Types of Blood thinners:
- Antiplatelet drug: It thin the blood to keep blood cells (platelets) from sticking together in the veins and arteries. Ex- aspirin
- Anticoagulant drugs: It prevent blood clots by increasing the amount of time it takes for blood clots to form. These are generlly recommended to one with heart disease.Ex- warfarin
- Vitamin K can lessen the effectiveness of some anticoagulants, such as warfarin.
- People who take anticoagulant medications are suggested to use herbal supplements and teas with caution.
- Natural blood thinners: garlic, ginger, celery seed, aniseed.
- Foods rich in vitamin E are also natural blood thinners. A number of oils contain vitamin E, such as olive, corn, soybean, and wheat germ are some of these.
- Other sources of Vitamin E are: spinach, tomatoes, mangoes, kiwis, peanut butter, almonds, sunflower seeds, broccoli
Context: It was spotted recently in Manas tiger reserve, Assam.
- It was spotted close to the border with Bhutan in Manas’s Bansbari Mathanguri forest.
- The sightings of rare animals and birds in Manas is an outcome of better access to remote parts of the protected area where extremists and hunters once ruled
- It has been sighted for the first time in Assam.
- It is a Himalayan mammal, somewhere between a goat and an antelope.
- It is a subspecies of the mainland serow native to the Himalayas.
- It is a high-altitude dweller usually found 2,000-4,000 metres above sea level.
- It is ‘vulnerable’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
- Other animals/Birds sighted in region recently: black-necked crane; Mandarin duck in the Maguri-Motapung wetland near DibruSaikhowa National Park