Daily Prelims Notes 3 May 2021
- May 3, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
3 May 2021
Table Of Contents
- POCSO ACT
- ARTICLE 164 (4)
- G 7
- GERMLINE TARGETING APPROACH
- MASALA BONDS
- WORLD PRESS FREEDOM DAY
- CHIRANJEEVEE HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME
Context: Amid Covid-19 lockdown, Nilgiris witnessing rise in cases of child marriages, sexual abuse.
Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
- It was enacted to protect the children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography with due regard for safeguarding the interest and well-being of children.
- It defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age and regards the best interests and welfare of the child as a matter of paramount importance at every stage, to ensure the healthy physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child.
- It defines different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative assault, as well as sexual harassment and pornography.
- It deems a sexual assault to be “aggravated” under certain circumstances, such as when the abused child is mentally ill or when the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority like a family member, police officer, teacher, or doctor.
- It also casts the police in the role of child protectors during the investigative process.
- The Act stipulates that a case of child sexual abuse must be disposed of within one year from the date the offence is reported.
- It was amended in August 2019 to provide more stringent punishment, including the death penalty, for sexual crimes against children.
Context: Mamata not the first CM to lose, has to win bypoll in 6 months.
- Article 164(4) of the Constitution of India states that a Minister who for any period of six consecutive months is not a member of the Legislature of the State shall at the expiration of that period cease to be a Minister.
- It is implied in the language of clause (4) that every Minister should normally be a Member of the State Legislature which means of either House if the State Legislature is bicameral.
- It is permissible to appoint a person who is not such a Member but then he must get elected within six months or else he shall cease to be a Minister on the expiration of that period.
- It is a clear fraud on the Constitution to misinterpret and misuse this provision (i) to re-appoint a non-member after six months by giving a few days’ break, (ii) to appoint a person who is disqualified for being a Member, or (iii) to appoint someone who resigns his membership only to escape disqualification.
- A non-member can also be appointed Chief Minister and he can continue to hold office if he gets elected to the State Legislature within a period of six months.
Subject: International Relations
Context: External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar will embark on a four-day visit to London to participate in a meeting of foreign ministers of G7 countries. India has been invited to the meeting as a guest country.
- The G-7 or ‘Group of Seven’ are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
- The G-7 nations meet at annual summits that are presided over by leaders of member countries on a rotational basis. The summit is an informal gathering that lasts two days, in which leaders of member countries discuss a wide range of global issues.
- The G-7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters.
- The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.
- It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975 by the top economies of the time as an informal forum to discuss pressing world issues.
- Canada joined the group in 1976, and the European Union began attending in 1977.
- The G-7 was known as the ‘G-8’ for several years after the original seven were joined by Russia in 1997. The Group returned to being called G-7 after Russia was expelled as a member in 2014 following the latter’s annexation of the Crimea region of Ukraine.
Subject: Science & tech
Context: A new vaccine candidate meets the effectiveness target set by WHO for combating the disease.
- IAVI and Scripps Research Institute had announced encouraging results from a small trial of a vaccine against HIV that is based on the ‘germline targeting’ approach.
- Now, a vaccine with 77% effectiveness over one year could help deliver the world, especially developing nations, from a dreaded child-killer: malaria.
Germline Targeting Approach
- The germline-targeting approach is meant to launch the production of the desired bnAb by stimulating the right antibody-producing cells. Antibodies are produced by immune cells called B cells, which start out in a “naïve” or “germline” state.
- A large repertoire of these germline B cells circulates in the blood and other tissues.
- In a viral infection–or after immunization with a vaccine that mimics an infecting virus–some germline B cells will bind at least weakly to structures on the surface of the virus.
- That will stimulate the cells to begin a weeks-long maturation process, in which the antibodies continuously improve in their ability to bind to the surface, thereby neutralizing the virus.
- The germline-targeting strategy for an HIV vaccine aims to stimulate the small number of germline B cells that are capable of maturing into cells that make bnAbs.
R 21 VACCINE
- The R21 vaccine candidate is produced by expressing recombinant HBsAg virus-like particles in Hansenulapolymorpha, comprising the central repeat and the C-terminus of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) fused to the N-terminal end of HBsAg10.
- R21 was created by the University of Oxford, located in England.
- R21 was mixed immediately before administration with Matrix-M™, a saponin-based vaccine adjuvant produced by Novavax AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
- The Matrix-M component of the malaria vaccine will be manufactured and supplied to SII by Novavax.
- Under Novavax’s agreement with Serum Institute, SII has rights to use Matrix-M in the vaccine in regions where the disease is endemic and will pay Novavax royalties on its market sales of the vaccine.
Context: Of the total borrowings during March 2021, USD 5.35 billion came in through the approval route of the external commercial borrowings (ECB), while the rest of USD 3.88 billion was raked in via the automatic route of raising funds from international markets.
No money was raised through the rupee denominated bonds (RDB) or the masala bonds, as was the case in the year-ago period as well.
- They are rupee-denominated bonds i.e. the funds would be raised from overseas market in Indian rupees.
- According to RBI, any corporate, body corporate and Indian bank is eligible to issue Rupee denominated bonds overseas.
- While companies can raise funds through these bonds, there are limitations for the use of such proceeds.
- RBI mandates that the money raised through such bonds cannot be used for real estate activities other than for development of integrated township or affordable housing projects.
- It also can’t be used for investing in capital markets, purchase of land and on-lending to other entities for such activities as stated above.
Minimum maturity of masala bonds
- According to RBI, the minimum maturity period for Masala Bonds raised up to Rupee equivalent of USD 50 million in a financial year should be 3 years.
- And for bonds raised above USD 50 million equivalents in INR per financial year should be 5 years.
- The conversion for such bonds will happen at the market rate on the date of settlement of transactions undertaken for issue and servicing of the bonds, including its redemption.
Where can these bonds be issued and who can subscribe?
- The bonds can only be issued in a country and subscribed by a resident of such country that is a member of FATF and whose securities market regulator is a member of International Organisation of Securities Commission.
- While residents of such countries can subscribe to the bonds, it can also be subscribed by multilateral and regional financial institutions where India is a member country.
Subject: Important Days
Context: World Press Freedom Day is being observed on May 3, 2021.
- World Press Freedom Day was proclaimed by the UN General Assembly in December 1993, following the recommendation of UNESCO’s General Conference.
- Since then, 3 May, the anniversary of the Declaration of Windhoek is celebrated worldwide as World Press Freedom Day.
- To celebrate the fundamental principles of press freedom, assess the state of press freedom throughout the world, defend the media from attacks on their independence, and pay tribute to journalists who have lost their lives in the line of duty.
- This year’s theme “Information as a Public Good” serves as a call to affirm the importance of cherishing information as a public good.
Subject: Government Schemes
Context: Recently, the Rajasthan government has announced that implementation of the Chief Minister Chiranjeevi Health Insurance Scheme.
About Chief Minister Chiranjeevi Health Insurance Scheme
- It is an ambitious health insurance scheme of the Rajasthan government.
- It is the first health insurance initiative from the Rajasthan Government that gives cashless treatment in the registered hospitals.
- It aims to provide annual cashless insurance cover of Rs 5 lakh to every family of the state.
- The registration is free for those who are covered under the National Food Security Act (NFSA), Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC), Small and marginal farmers, contractual workers and those who have received COVID-19 ex-gratia.
- The applicants who do not fall in these categories will have to pay Rs 850 as 50 per cent of the annual premium.
- The main eligibility criterion is to be a permanent resident of the Rajasthan state.
Subject: International Relations
Context: India on Sunday received assistance from Taiwan, including oxygen concentrators and cylinders, with more batches of medical equipment set to follow from Taipei.
- Taiwan is officially known as the Republic of China (ROC).
- It is a state in East Asia with Neighbouring states include the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south.
- The East China Sea lies to its north, the Philippine Sea to its east, the Luzon Strait directly to its south and the South China Sea to its southwest.
- The Taiwan Strait separates the island of Taiwan from mainland China. The strait is currently part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north.
- Taipei is the capital.
- Taiwan is no longer a member of the UN, having been replaced by the PRC in 1971. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognize the ROC.
- Taiwan maintains official ties with 14 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See.
- The bilateral relations between India and Taiwan have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations.