Daily Prelims Notes 4 February 2021
- February 4, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
4 February 2021
All 6 CSE Prelims Qualified
4 CSE Mains Qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT
- JCPOA DEAL
- CARBON NEUTRAL FUEL
- SECTION 69 A OF IT ACT
- MOTION OF THANKS
- PRIVILEGE MOTION
- LINGAYAT SECT
- APPOINTMENT OF CBI DIRECTOR
- EQUALIZATION LEVY
- NARI SHAKTI PURASKAR
- STRATEGIC CRUDE OIL RESERVE
- NAMAMI GANGE
- GOBARDHAN SCHEME
- ATAL BIMIT VYAKTI KALYAN YOJANA
- ODOP SCHEME
Context : PM will inaugurate the centenary Celebrations at ChauriChaura at Gorakhpur Dist. Uttar Pradesh.
- The incident took place on 4 February 1922 at ChauriChaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province.
- A large group of protesters participating in the Non-Cooperation Movement clashed with police who opened fire.
- In retaliation the demonstrators attacked and set fire to a police station, killing all of its occupants.
- The incident led to the death of three civilians and 22 policemen.
- Mahatma Gandhi, who was strictly against violence, halted the non-co-operation movement on the national level on 12 February 1922, as a direct result of this incident.
- In the early 1920s, Indians, led by Mahatma Gandhi, were engaged in a nationwide non-cooperation movement.
- Using non-violent methods of civil disobedience known as Satyagraha, protests were organised by the INC to challenge oppressive regulations such as the Rowlatt Act.
- Appalled at the outrage, Gandhi went on a five-day fast as penance for what he perceived as his culpability in the bloodshed.
- In reflection, Gandhi felt that he had acted too hastily in encouraging people to revolt against the British Raj without sufficiently emphasizing the importance of non-violence.
- On 12 February 1922, the Indian National Congress halted the Non-co-operation Movement on the national level as a direct result of the ChauriChaura tragedy.
Subject: International Relations
Context: Hassan Rouhani, Iran’s president, says there will be no changes to the content of the JCPOA and that no other country will be added to it.
- Commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on July 14, 2015, between Iran and the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany) together with the European Union.
- Under JCPOA, Iran agreed to eliminate its stockpile of medium-enriched uranium, cut its stockpile of low-enriched uranium by 98%, and reduce by about two-thirds the number of its gas centrifuges for 13 years.
- For the next 15 years Iran will only enrich uranium up to 3.67%. Iran also agreed not to build any new heavy-water facilities for the same period of time.
- Uranium-enrichment activities will be limited to a single facility using first-generation centrifuges for 10 years. Other facilities will be converted to avoid proliferation risks.
- To monitor and verify Iran’s compliance with the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will have regular access to all Iranian nuclear facilities.
- The agreement provides that in return for verifiably abiding by its commitments, Iran will receive relief from U.S., European Union, and UNSC nuclear-related sanctions.
- On 5 January 2020, in the aftermath of the Baghdad Airport Airstrike that targeted and killed Iranian general QassemSoleimani, Iran declared that it would no longer abide by the limitations of the deal but would continue to coordinate with the IAEA, leaving open the possibility of resuming compliance.
Context: Reliance Industries Ltd has sourced the world’s first consignment of ‘carbon-neutral oil’ from the US as it looks to become a net zero-carbon company by 2035.
- Oxy Low Carbon Ventures (OLCV), a division of US oil major Occidental, delivered carbon-neutral oil to Reliance, the firm said.
- Oxy Low Carbon Ventures and Macquarie will offset carbon dioxide equivalent to that associated with the production, delivery and refining of the crude oil and the use of the resulting product through the retirement of carbon offset credits. This will make the oil ‘carbon-neutral’.
- This transaction is a first step in the creation of a new market for climate-differentiated crude oil.
- It is also a bridge to the development of a further differentiated petroleum product, net-zero oil which Occidental intends to eventually produce.
- Net zero oil is produced through the capture and sequestration of atmospheric CO2 via industrial-scale direct air capture (DAC) facilities and geological sequestration.
Subject : National Legislations
Context: Around 100 Twitter accounts and 150 tweets related to the farmers’ protests went off the microblogging platform on Monday morning as the IT Ministry directed Twitter to remove these accounts under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act.
- The Information Technology Act, 2000 was enacted by Parliament of India on 9 June 2000 and it is in force since 17 October 2000.
Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000
- It empowers the central government to block the online content and arrest the culprit. This is the primary law that deals with cyber-crime and electronic commerce in India.
- Section 69A of the Information Technology Act has given many power to the central government. Read sections of the act;
- Issue direction to remove objectionable content on social media and any other website.
- To block the online content in the wake of sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, defence of India, friendly relations with foreign States.
- The procedure and safeguards subject to which such blocking for access by the public may be carried out shall be such as may be prescribed.
- The concerned authorities failing to comply with the direction (sub-section 1) issued might be punished with imprisonment for a term up to to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.
- The apex court said that the Centre can exercise its power to issue directions to block an internet site, saying there are adequate procedural safeguards. The court also said that national security is above individual privacy.
- As we know that the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 allows the central government to tap phones. The Supreme Court had given a verdict in 1996 and said that the government can tap phones only in case of a “public emergency”.
- But in the case of Section 69 of the IT Act, no such restriction is imposed by the Supreme Court.
- Recently the government of India had banned many Chinese apps citing the provisions of Section 69A of the information technology act, 2000.
Context: Several members from the Opposition and Treasury benches participated in the debate on the three contentious farm laws, which are being opposed by farmers on the borders of Delhi, in the Upper House as part of the Motion of Thanks to the President’s address.
Motion of Thanks to Presidential Address
- The address of the president is discussed in both the Houses of Parliament on a motion called the ‘Motion of Thanks’.
- It is available to the members of Parliament to raise discussions and debates to examine and criticise the government and administration for its lapses and failures.
- Generally, three days are allotted for the discussion on the Motion of Thanks.
- If any of the amendments are put forward and accepted then the Motion of Thanks is adopted in the amended form.
- Amendments may refer to matters contained in the Address as well as to matters which, in the opinion of the member, the Address has failed to mention.
- At the end of the discussion, the motion is put to vote.
Significance of Motion of Thanks
- The Motion of Thanks must be passed in the House. Otherwise, it amounts to the defeat of the government.
- It is one of the ways through which the Lok Sabha can also express a lack of confidence in the government. The other ways are:
Rejection of a money bill.
Passing a censure motion or an adjournment motion.
The defeat of the government on a vital issue.
Passing a cut motion.
Context: RSP MP NK Premachandran Wednesday submitted a privilege notice against Union Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar for proposing to the protesting farmers amendments in the three contentious agricultural laws passed by Parliament.
- It is concerned with the breach of parliamentary privileges by a minister.
Breach of Privileges
- Parliamentary Privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”.
- When any of these rights and immunities are disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under law of Parliament.
- A notice is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege.
Role of the Speaker/Rajya Sabha (RS) Chair
- The Speaker/RS chairperson is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion.
- The Speaker/Chair can decide on the privilege motion himself or herself or refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament. If the Speaker/Chair gives consent under relevant rules, the member concerned is given an opportunity to make a short statement.
Rules governing Privilege
- Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook governs privilege.
- Rules say that a member may, with the consent of the Speaker or the Chairperson, raise a question involving a breach of privilege either of a member or of the House or a committee thereof.
- It is a Standing Committee. It examines the cases of breach of the privileges of the House and its members and recommends appropriate action.
- The Lok Sabha committee has 15 members, while the Rajya Sabha committee has 10 members.
Subject: Social Issue
Context:Lingayat sub-sect pushes for 15% quota, Karnataka CM faces heat.
- The VeerashaivaLingayat community who make up 17 per cent of the state population is currently provided five per cent reservation on the whole under the 3B category of backward classes.
- The term Lingayat denotes a person who wears a personal linga, an iconic form of god Shiva, on the body which is received during the initiation ceremony.
- Lingayats are the followers of the 12th-century social reformer-philosopher poet, Basaveshwara.
- The Lingayats are strict monotheists. They enjoin the worship of only one God, namely, Linga (Shiva).
- The word ‘Linga’ does not mean Linga established in temples, but universal consciousness qualified by the universal energy (Shakti).
- Lingayats had been classified as a Hindu subcaste called “Veerashaiva Lingayats” and they are considered to be Shaivites.
- Basavanna was a 12th-century philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.
- Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas. Basavanna rejected gender or social discrimination, superstitions and rituals.
- He introduced new public institutions such as theAnubhavaMantapa(or, the “hall of spiritual experience”), which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.
- As a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or “ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva”.
- This movement shared its roots in the Tamil Bhakti movement, particularly the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century.
Context: Gujarat cadre IPS officer Praveen Sinha, currently Additional Director of the CBI, was appointed as its interim chief.
- The Centre has initiated the process of new appointment. It has drawn a panel of eligible officers belonging to 1984 to 1986 batches.
Director of CBI
- Director, CBI as Inspector General of Police, Delhi Special Police Establishment, is responsible for the administration of the organization.
- Till 2014, the CBI Director was appointed on the basis of the DSPE Act, 1946.
- In 2003, DSPE Act was revised on Supreme Court’s recommendation in the Vineet Narain case.
- A committee that had members from Central Vigilance Commission, Secretaries from Home Ministry, Ministry of Personnel and Public Grievances would send recommendations to Central Government for the appointment of CBI Director.
- In 2014, the Lokpal Act provided a committee for appointment of CBI Director:
- Headed by Prime Minister
- Other members – Leader of Opposition/ Leader of the single largest opposition party, Chief Justice of India/ a Supreme Court Judge.
- Home Ministry sends a list of eligible candidates to DoPT. Then, the DoPT prepares the final list on basis of seniority, integrity, and experience in the investigation of anti-corruption cases, and sends it to the committee.
- Director of CBI has been provided security of two year tenure, by the CVC Act, 2003.
Context: Firms reaping economic benefits from a different country have to be taxed even if they do not have a physical establishment in that jurisdiction, argued Commerce Secretary, while defending India’s decision to impose a 2 per cent digital services tax on foreign e-commerce firms.
- The equalization levy is aimed at taxing foreign companies which have a significant local client base in India but are billing them through their offshore units, effectively escaping the country’s tax system.
Background for Equalization Levy:
- Equalisation levy at 6% has been in force since 2016 on payment exceeding Rs 1 lakh a year to a non-resident service provider for online advertisements.
- It is now applicable for e-commerce companies that are sourcing revenue from Indian customers without having tangible presence here in the country.
- The amendments to the Finance Act, 2020 had expanded the ambit of the equalisation levy for non-resident e-commerce operators involved in supply of services, including online sale of goods and provision of services, with the levy at the rate of 2% effective April 1, 2020.
- The tax applies on e-commerce transactions on websites such as Amazon.com. Google in particular as the tax applies on advertising revenue earned overseas if those ads target customers in India.
Changes in Challan ITNS 285:
- The income tax department has modified challan ITNS 285 (relating to payment of equalisation levy) to enable payment of the first installment by non-resident e-commerce operators.
- The challan also seeks mandatory PAN and provides for ‘Outside India’ option while seeking address.
- The non-payment could result in a penalty equal to the amount of equalisation levy, along with interest.
- The late-payment would attract interest at the rate of 1% per month or part of the month.
Subject: Current Events / Awards
Context: Ministry of Women and Child Development has extended the last date for submission of nomination for the prestigious Nari Shakti Puraskar-2020 till 6th February, 2021.
- Initiated in the year 1999.
- The awards are given away by the President of India every year on 8 March, International Women’s Day.
- The Ministry of Women and Child Development announces these national level awards for eminent women, organisations and institutions.
- The Nari Shakti Puraskar carries a cash award of Rs.1 Lakh and a certificate for individuals and institutions.
- Open to individuals, groups and institutions for outstanding work towards empowerment of women.
- Individual applicant must be at least 25 years of age.
- Institutions must have at least 5 years of relevant experience.
Context: India looks to expand its plan on strategic petroleum reserves overseas, say sources.
- Strategic petroleum reserves are huge stockpiles of crude oil to deal with any crude oil-related crisis like the risk of supply disruption from natural disasters, war or other calamities.
- According to the agreement on an International Energy Programme (I.E.P.), each International Energy Agency (IEA) country has an obligation to hold emergency oil stocks equivalent to at least 90 days of net oil imports.
- In case of a severe oil supply disruption, IEA members may decide to release these stocks to the market as part of a collective action.
- India became an associate member of the International Energy Agency in 2017.
- India’s strategic crude oil storages are currently located at Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh), Mangaluru (Karnataka), and Padur (Karnataka).
- The government has also given approval for setting up of two additional facilities at Chandikhol (Odisha) and Padur (Karnataka).
- The concept of dedicated strategic reserves was first mooted in 1973 in the US, after the OPEC oil crisis.
- Underground storage is, by far the most economic method of storing petroleum products because the underground facility rules out the requirement of large swathes of land, ensures less evaporation and, since the caverns are built much below the sea level, it is easy to discharge crude into them from ships.
- The construction of the Strategic Crude Oil Storage facilities in India is being managed by Indian Strategic Petroleum Reserves Limited (ISPRL).
- ISPRL is a wholly owned subsidiary of Oil Industry Development Board (OIDB) under the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas.
Context: Namami Gange: Massive Scientific and Community based programs launched on World Wetland Day 2021.
Namami Gange Programme:
- It an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as a ‘Flagship Programme’ in June 2014.
- It seeks to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution and conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
- It is being operated under Ministry of Jal Shakti.
- The program is being implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program Management Groups (SPMGs).
- NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council (set in 2016; which replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NRGBA).
- National Ganga Council (NGC) was Created in October 2016 under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016. It is Headed by Prime Minister.
- It has a Rs. 20,000-crore, centrally-funded, non-lapsable corpus and consists of nearly 288 projects.
- Main Pillars of the Namami Gange Programme are:
Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
Industrial Effluent Monitoring
Subject : Govt Schemes
Context: The Jal Shakti Ministry launched a unified portal on the ‘Gobardhan’ scheme, an initiative aimed at managing cattle and biodegradable waste and also help enhance farmers’ income.
Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resources-Dhan (GOBAR-Dhan)
- Under this scheme Cattle dung, kitchen waste and agricultural waste can be tapped to create biogas-based energy
- The objectives of this initiative is to make villages clean and to generate wealth and energy from cattle and other waste.
- The Gobardhan scheme is being pursued as a priority programme under the Swachch Bharat Mission Grameen-Phase 2.
- It is implemented by Jal Shakthi Ministry.
- The GOBAR-Dhan initiative is expected to create opportunities to convert cattle dung and other organic waste to compost, biogas and even larger scale bio-CNG units.
- This programme, expected to be launched in April, aims at the collection and aggregation of cattle dung and solid waste across clusters of villages for sale to entrepreneurs to produce organic manure, biogas/bio-CNG.
Subject: Govt Schemes
- Atal BimitVyaktiKalyanYojana was introduced w.e.f. 1st July 2018.
- Under it, unemployment benefit is paid to the workers covered under the Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) scheme.
- The Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) has extended the Atal BimitVyaktiKalyanYojana by one year to 30th June 2021.
- Unemployment benefit is paid in the form of cash compensation upto 90 days, once in a lifetime, to be claimed after three months (90 days) in one or more spells for being rendered unemployed.
- The employee should have completed two years of insurable employment and has contributed not less than 78 days in each of the four consecutive contribution periods immediately preceding to the claim of the relief.
- The benefit does not exceed 25% of the average earning per day.
Subject: Govt Schemes
Context: To support the production of horticultural items under the “One District One Product (ODOP)” scheme and provide better nutrition to school children, the Uttar Pradesh government may introduce orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, in mid-day meal scheme in primary schools.
One District One Product
- Firstly , the UP government has launched the One District One Product (ODOP) programme which aims to create product-specific traditional industrial hubs across 75 districts of UP.
- This is going to provide an impetus to the traditional industries across respective districts in the state. The Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi has also praised the ODOP programme describing it as “An extension of Make in India”.
- Ministry of Commerce and Industry is now working on an institutional mechanism to promote the ODOP scheme across India.
- The objective is to convert each district of the country into an export hub by identifying products with export potential in the district.
- Preserve and develop local crafts and promote traditional art
- Increase incomes and local employment which will in turn result in decline in migration for employment
- Improve product quality and develop local skills
- Transform local products in an artistic way through packaging, branding
- Connect production with tourism through live demos and sales outlets for gifts and souvenirs
- Resolve issues of economic difference and regional imbalance
Financial Assistance under ODOP
- The ODOP programme provides aid in the form of following major schemes:
- Common Facility Centre (CFC) Scheme –Under this scheme, financial assistance of up to 90% of the project cost of a CFC would be provided by the state government.
- Marketing Development Assistance Scheme – Under this scheme, financial assistance will be provided to participants of national and international fairs/ exhibitions for display and sale of their products selected under ODOP programme.
- Finance Assistance Scheme (Margin Money Scheme) – Under this scheme, a certain margin of the project cost will be paid to the applicants in the form of subsidy to setup the project.
- Skill Development Scheme – Under this scheme, skilled artisans will be trained through RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) and will be certified through relevant Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) while the unskilled artisans will be provided a 10-day training and an advanced toolkit which will be free of cost