Daily Prelims Notes 6 January 2022
- January 6, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
6 January 2022
Table Of Contents
- Amendment to the Jagannath Temple Act
- Delhi government’s recognition to fifth Sikh Takht
- PM’s security
- Climate funds
- National Disaster Response Fund
- Resignation of Governor
- NationalYouth Festival
- Official language in High Courts
- Governor’s address to State Legislature
- Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment (POSH) Act
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – Odisha state cabinet on Wednesday approved amendments to the Sri Jagannath Temple Act of 1954, simplifying issues pertaining to land owned by the Jagannath Temple.
- Odisha state cabinet approved amendments to the Sri Jagannath Temple Act of 1954, simplifying issues pertaining to land owned by the Jagannath Temple.
- Following the amendment, the temple administration and concerned officials now have the power to sell or lease out temple land, without any approval from the state government.
- Earlier, people who had occupied or were in possession of the temple land for a long period of time had to approach the state government for sale or transfer of the land.
What is the Jagannath Temple Act, 1954?
- In the year 1806, the then British government had issued regulations for management of the Jagannath temple which was referred to as the Juggernaut temple by the colonial rulers.
- Under these regulations, pilgrims who visited the temple were expected to pay taxes. The British government was entrusted with appointing senior priests at the temple.
- It was only after India gained Independence that the state of Odisha formally introduced the Jagannath Temple Act in the year 1952, which came into effect in 1954.
- The Act contains provision on land rights of the temple, duties of the sevayat, administrative powers of the Shri Jagannath Temple Managing Committee, rights and privileges of the Raja of Puri and other persons connected with the management and administration of the temple.
What does the recent amendment propose?
- The recent amendment approved by the state cabinet now decentralizes the power to settle land related issues of the temple.
- The cabinet has delegated power to temple administration and concerned officials for sale and lease of land in name of Jagannath temple.
- Unlike earlier, no approval will be required from the state government for the process. Through the sale of land, used and unused, the temple will also generate additional corpus funds.
Who can purchase land belonging to the temple?
- Around 60,426 acres of land in the name of Lord Jagannath, has been identified in 24 districts across the state. Over 395 acres of land has been identified in West Bengal, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Bihar as well.
- But these lands have been occupied by people or even institutes like schools and hospitals for more than five decades. After the temple administration identified these lands, in 2003 it proposed that the occupants can buy the land or take it on lease from the temple rather than driving them away.
- So the land in this case can be bought by people who are already occupying land owned by the temple and have no land rights to claim ownership. The temple administration also allows sale of land which has remained unused to eligible persons for setting up of schools, hospitals, etc.
- The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by King AnatavarmanChodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
- Jagannath Puri temple is called ‘YamanikaTirtha’ where, according to the Hindu beliefs, the power of ‘Yama’, the god of death has been nullified in Puri due to the presence of Lord Jagannath.
- This temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram).
- There are four gates to the temple- Eastern ‘Singhdwara’ which is the main gate with two crouching lions, Southern ‘Ashwadwara’, Western ‘VyaghraDwara and Northern ‘Hastidwara’. There is a carving of each form at each gate.
- In front of the entrance stands the Aruna stambha or sun pillar, which was originally at the Sun Temple in Konark.
- Jagannath PuriYatrais the most famous Vaishnavite rituals observed in India and abroad.
- On the occasion, devotees pray to three deities – Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Lordess Subhadra
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – Aam Aadmi Party(AAP)-led Delhi Assembly on Monday passed an amendment Bill to the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Act, 1971, recognising TakhtDamdama Sahib as the fifth Takht of Sikhs.
- The amendment to the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Act means that it adds one more ex officio member in the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Managament Committee (DSGMC) house.
- Earlier, there were four ex officio members in the house — the chiefs (jathedars) of the other four Sikh Takhts.
- Ex officio members have no voting rights in the house.
To know about Takhts, please refer January 2022 DPN.
Subject – Defence and Security
Context – Prime Minister’s cavalcade stranded on a flyover in Punjab’s Ferozepur district for over 15 minutes due to a protest by farmers
- Planning of the PM’s security during any visit is an elaborate exercise that involves both central agencies and state police forces. Broad guidelines are laid down in what is called the SPG’s ‘Blue Book’.
- Three days before any planned visit, the Special Protection Group (SPG), which is responsible for the PM’s security, holds a mandatory Advance Security Liaison (ASL) with everyone involved in securing the event, including SPG officials, Intelligence Bureau (IB) officials in the state concerned, state police officials and the district magistrate concerned.
- Every minute detail of the visit and required security arrangements are discussed among the officials. Once the meeting is over, an ASL report is prepared, and it is signed by all those who attended. Based on this report, all security arrangements are made.
What is chalked out during the meeting?
- Generally, a PM’s visit is supposed to be planned out to the very last detail, and the itinerary that is planned thereafter is expected to stick to it.
- Thus, the meeting discusses how the PM would arrive (by air, road, or rail) and, once he lands, how he would reach the venue of his programme (generally by helicopter or road). In planning this, intelligence inputs of central agencies and the local intelligence unit are taken into consideration.
- Then the security of the venue — which involves aspects such as entry and exit, frisking of those coming to the venue, and placing of door frame metal detectors — is discussed. The structural stability of the dais is checked as well. (There have been incidents of the stage at public meetings collapsing while leaders are on it.)
- Fire safety of the venue is also audited. Even the weather report for the day is taken into consideration. If the PM is likely to take a boat to reach any place, the functional readiness and safety of the boat is authorised on a certificate.
- The SPG only provides proximate security to the PM. When the PM is travelling to any state, it is the responsibility of the state police to ensure overall security. They have the responsibility of intelligence gathering, route clearance, venue sanitisation, and crowd management.
- Central intelligence agencies are responsible for providing inputs about any threat to security. However, it is the SPG that takes the final call on how the PM’s security is to be arranged. Sources said the SPG never allows the PM’s movement until the local police gives the go-ahead.
- The state police are also supposed to conduct anti-sabotage checks and to secure the route by placing not only men on the roads but also snipers on rooftops.
- The state police also provide a pilot vehicle that leads the PM’s cavalcade and, if the PM is likely to stay at a place, an officer of the level of superintendent of police (SP) is deputed as camp commandant to ensure security.
Subject – Environment
Context – Climate funds: Developed nations must step up
- In 2009, at the COP15 Summit in Copenhagen, developed countries committed to jointly mobilise $100 billion a year for climate finance so that developing nations can take effective actions.
- The 2015 Paris Summit extended this goal through 2025.
- Article 9.4 of the Paris Agreement states that the provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to balance adaptation and mitigation.
- In 2016, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in its Adaptation Gap Report, estimated the annual climate adaptation costs and financing needs at $140- 300 billion by 2030 and $280-500 billion by 2050.
- Climate mitigation projects are investable, which attract private financiers. On the contrary, adaptation sectors find it difficult to attract funds, especially private capital, due to high project development costs and lack of commercial viability or good investment returns. The benefits are also largely confined to the recipient countries.
To know more about Climate Finance, please refer November 2021 DPN.
Subject – IR
Context – Group of protestors storm Mayor’s office in Kazakhstan
|In Central Asia
|Nur-Sultan, formerly known as Astana
|Kazakhstan is the most dominant nation of Central Asia economically and politically, generating 60% of the region’s GDP, primarily through its oil and gas industry.
Subject – Disaster Management
Context – Release ₹6,230 cr. NDRF funds for flood relief, T.N. urges Centre
To know about NDRF and SDRF, please refer May 2021 DPN.
Subject – Polity
Context – T.R. Baalu demands resignation of T.N. Governor
- A governor holds office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. However, this term of five years is subject to the pleasure of the President. Further, he can resign at any time by addressing a resignation letter to the President.
- The President may transfer a Governor appointed to one state to another state for the rest of the term.
- The Supreme Court held that the pleasure of the President is not justifiable.
- The governor has no security of tenure and no fixed term of office. He may be removed by the President at any time.
- The Constitution does not lay down any grounds upon which a governor may be removed by the President.
- A governor can hold office beyond his term of five years until his successor assumes charge. The underlying idea is that there must be a governor in the state and there cannot be an interregnum.
- The Constitution of India envisages the same pattern of government in the states as that for the Centre, that is, a parliamentary system.
- Articles 153 to 167 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the state executive. The state executive consists of the governor, the chief minister, the council of ministers and the advocate general of the state.
- Thus, there is no office of vice-governor (in the state) like that of Vice-President at the Centre.
- The governor is the chief executive head of the state. But, like the president, he is a nominal executive head (titular or constitutional head).
- The governor also acts as an agent of the central government. Therefore, the office of governor has a dual role.
- Usually, there is a governor for each state, but the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 facilitated the appointment of the same person as a governor for two or more states.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – PM to inaugurate National Youth Festival on Jan. 12
- The National Youth Festival in India is an annual gathering of youth with various activities including competitive ones. Celebrated to commemorate the birth anniversary of youth icon Swami Vivekananda, it is organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India in collaboration with one of the State Governments.
- Swami Vivekananda’s birthday on January 12 is always celebrated as National Youth Day and the week commencing from that day is known as the National Youth Week.
- Thus it is held in a different state each year during National Youth Week, 12 to 16 January every year.
- Prime Minister has hand-picked Puducherry as the venue for the festival.
- Youth from across the country will showcase their culture and talents. People can learn and share several things from the event.
- Festival logo and mascot – “SakshamYuva-ShashaktYuva”.
- As part of the National Youth Festival, the National Youth Parliament Festival (NYPF) has also been organized since 2019.
Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902)
- He was born as NarendranathDatta on 12th January, 1863.
- Introduced the world to the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga.
- He was the chief disciple of the 19th-century mystic Ramakrishna Paramhansa.
- Laid the greatest emphasis on education for the regeneration of our motherland. He advocated a man-making character-building education.
- Established the Ramakrishna Mission in 1897. It is an organization which works in the area of value-based education, culture, health, women’s empowerment, youth and tribal welfare and relief and rehabilitation.
- He died at Belur Math in 1902. Belur Math, located in West Bengal, is the headquarters of Ramakrishna Math & Ramakrishna Mission.
Subject – Polity
Context – English is the language of court, says Gujarat HC
- In the High Court, there is a rule that even if any party who does not hire a lawyer and appears in person, he has to speak and argue in English only.
- The Bench also underlined that the Article 348 of the Constitution mandates that the language of the High Court would be English.
What the Constitution says?
- Article 348 (1) of the Constitution of India provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court and in every High court shall be in English Language until Parliament by law otherwise provides.
- Under Article 348 (2), the Governor of the State may, with the previous consent of the President, authorize the use of the Hindi language or any other language used for any official purpose of the State, in the proceedings of the High Court having its principal seat in that State provided that decrees, judgments or orders passed by such High Courts shall be in English.
- Section 7 of the Official Languages Act, 1963, provides that the use of Hindi or official language of a State in addition to the English language may be authorized, with the consent of the President of India, by the Governor of the State for purpose of judgments etc. made by the High Court for that State.
- The provision of optional use of Hindi in proceedings has already been made in the High Courts of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.
Subject – Polity
Context – ‘TN committed to target of $1 trillion economy’. Action plan will be formulated to achieve the goal, says Governor in Assembly address
Article 175: Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
(1) The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, either House of the Legislature of the State, or both Houses assembled together, or may for that purpose require the attendance of members.
(2) The Governor may send messages to the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State, whether with respect to a Bill then pending in the Legislature or otherwise, and a House to which any message is so sent shall with all convenient dispatch consider any matter required by the message to be taken into consideration.
Article 176: Special address by the Governor.
(1) At the commencement of the first session after each general election to the Legislative Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year, the Governor shall address the Legislative Assembly or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, both Houses assembled together and inform the Legislature of the causes of its summons.
(2) Provision shall be made by the rules regulating the procedure of the House or either House for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in such address.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – ‘Love and surrender’ at Anand Rao Circle in Bangalore. As part of makeover, there will be 2 traffic islands, statues of Buddha and Angulimala
- Aṅgulimāla is an important figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravāda tradition.
- Depicted as a ruthless brigand who completely transforms after a conversion to Buddhism, he is seen as the example par excellence of the redemptive power of the Buddha’s teaching and the Buddha’s skill as a teacher.
- Aṅgulimāla is seen by Buddhists as the “patron saint” of childbirth and is associated with fertility in South and Southeast Asia.
- Aṅgulimāla’s story can be found in numerous sources in Pāli, Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.
- Buddhists consider Aṅgulimāla a symbol of spiritual transformation, and his story a lesson that everyone can change their life for the better, even the least likely people.
Subject – Governance
Context – POSH Act: HC guidelines challenged
- A petition has been filed in the Supreme Court challenging guidelines issued by the Bombay High Court in cases under the Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment (POSH) Act, which include a blanket bar on parties and advocates from sharing records, including orders and judgments, with the media.
- The guidelines were formed ostensibly to protect the identities of the parties in a case under the POSH Act.
To know about the Act, please refer July 2021 DPN.