Daily Prelims Notes 8 November 2020
- November 8, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- TIGRAY REGION
- PRODUCTION LINKED INCENTIVE SCHEME
- GLACIAL LAKE OUTBURST
- AIM–SIRIUS INNOVATION PROGRAMME 3.0
- SANKALP SCHEME
- ASEEM PORTAL
- PHASED MANUFACTURING PROGRAMME
Subject : Geography
Context : Ethiopia is on the brink of a civil war after Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that he had ordered troops to counter an allegedly violent attack by armed forces in the country’s northern Tigray region.
- In early November 2020, the region and the Ethiopian federal government entered into conflict, with some gunfire being reported in the capital of Tigray, Mekelle.
- The conflict escalated in September, when Tigray held local elections in insubordination of the Ethiopian federal government. these elections were considered “illegal” by the federal government, further leading to conflict with Tigray authorities.
Tigray Region :
- The Tigray Region is the northernmost of the nine regions (kililat) of Ethiopia.
- Tigray is the homeland of the Tigrayan, Irob and Kunama peoples.
- Tigray is also known as Region 1 according to the federal constitution.
- Its capital and largest city is Mekelle.
- Tigray is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, the Amhara Region to the south and the Afar Region to the east and south east.
2. PRODUCTION LINKED INCENTIVE SCHEME
Subject : Govt Schemes
Context : The government aims to expand the ambit of the PLI scheme to include as many as ten more sectors such as food processing and textiles other than the already included mobile phones, allied equipment, pharmaceutical ingredients and medical devices.
- In order to boost domestic manufacturing and cut down on import bills, the central government in March this year introduced production linked incentive scheme that aims to give companies incentives on incremental sales from products manufactured in domestic units.
- Apart from inviting foreign companies to set shop in India, the scheme also aims to encourage local companies to set up or expand existing manufacturing units.
- So far, the scheme has been rolled out for mobile and allied equipment as well as pharmaceutical ingredients and medical devices manufacturing.
- These sectors are labour intensive and are likely, and the hope is that they would create new jobs for the ballooning employable workforce of India.
Need of Scheme:
- The idea of PLI is important as the government cannot continue making investments in these capital intensive sectors as they need longer times for start giving the returns.
- Instead, what it can do is to invite global companies with adequate capital to set up capacities in India.
- To make India more compliant with our WTO commitments and also make it non-discriminatory and neutral with respect to domestic sales and exports.
- Apart from cutting down on imports, the PLI scheme also looks to capture the growing demand in the domestic market.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : Myopia or shortsightedness is turning out to be an epidemic across India, and indeed even more in Southeast Asia. If this rate continues , by 2050 , 64 million children in Urban India may have Myopia.
- Myopia occurs because of the potential role of myopic genes and also local environmental conditions such as the prolonged ‘near work’ and/or less sunlight exposure, and not because of any infection due to harmful germs.
- It will not become a worldwide pandemic, as COVID-19 has. Yet, drastic changes in lifestyle (becoming more indoor-centric) and the timing and levels of sunlight we receive, it is time to take measures to counteract myopia, which may well become a global pandemic.
What is myopia?
- Myopia occurs when the eyeball becomes longer, relative to the focusing power of the cornea and the lens; this leads to focus not on the surface of the retina, but at a point before it.
- This leads you to find it difficult to focus distant objects clearly, though you can see close-up objects such as while reading and using the computer use.
Policy Suggestions :
- Mandatory 60 minutes of recess time in all schools during the school hours every day, by locking the classrooms to keep the students in sunlight, starting from primary level to the high schools.
- Have a structured recess time incorporated into all their curricula. Make it mandatory for schools to have enough space for playgrounds.
- Create public awareness among parents about the importance of proper eyesight and control the use of near-vision devices such as smartphones.
- Recommend/promote community centres in each locality to organise outdoor programmes weekly or at least twice a month.
Subject : Geography
Context : A glacial lake outburst flood hit the village of Gya in Ladakh, destroying houses, fields and bridges. Using remote sensing data, researchers from Germany have mapped the evolution of Gya glacial lake and note the cause of the flood.
- Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) refers to the glacier floods caused by the drainage of naturally dammed lakes in the glacier, on or at the margin of glaciers.
- Glacial lakes form when a glacier retreats, leaving the debris mass at the end of the glacier – the end moraine
- The moraine wall can act as a natural dam, trapping the melt water from the glacier and leading to the formation of a lake.
- The moraine dams are composed of unconsolidated boulders, gravel, sand, and silt. As with landslide dams, they can eventually break catastrophically, leading to a glacial lake outburst flood or GLOF.
- Many big glaciers melted rapidly, forming a large number of glacial lakes. Such lakes are inherently unstable and can be subject to catastrophic drainage, which is a potential source of danger to people and property in the valleys below them.
In Himalayas :
- While these events have been regarded as a major risk in the central Himalayan region including Sikkim, the arid Trans-Himalayan regions of Ladakh have received attention only recently. Here the glaciers are located at high altitudes not lower than 5,200 m and most glaciers are of small size.
5. AIM–SIRIUS INNOVATION PROGRAMME 3.0
Subject : Govt Schemes
Context :Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) and Sirius, Russia launched ‘AIM–Sirius Innovation Programme 3.0’– a 14-day virtual programme for Indian and Russian schoolchildren
- The first Indo-Russian bilateral youth innovation initiative, the AIM–Sirius programme seeks to develop technological solutions (both web- and mobile-based) for the two countries.
- Over a two-week programme, from 7–21 November 2020, 48 students and 16 educators and mentors will create 8 virtual products and mobile applications addressing global challenges in the wake of the covid-19 pandemic.
- Innovations developed by the student teams will leverage 21st-century technologies such as app development, artificial intelligence, blockchain, machine learning etc.
Subject : Govt Schemes
Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Scheme
- Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood (SANKALP) is an outcome-oriented programme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) with a special focus on decentralised planning and quality improvement.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which is collaborated with the World Bank.
- It aims to implement the mandate of the National Skill Development Mission (NSDM).
Main objectives of the scheme :
- Convergence: Creating convergence among all skill training activities, both State-led and Government of India funded, at the state level.
- Quality: Improving the quality of skill development programs through building a pool of quality trainers, developing model curriculum and content, and standardizing assessment and certification.
- Evaluation System: Establishing a robust monitoring and evaluation system for skill training programs.
- Inclusiveness & Opportunity: Providing access to skill training opportunities to the disadvantaged sections. Creating industry-led and demand-driven skill training capacity.
Additional Information :
- Under Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) a certain percentage of the funding is borne by the States in the ratio of 50:50, 70:30, 75:25 or 90:10 and the implementation is by the State Governments.
- Under Central sector schemes, it is 100% funded by the Union government and implemented by the Central Government machinery.
7. ASEEM PORTAL
Subject : Govt Schemes
- Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has launched ‘Aatamanirbhar Skilled Employee Employer Mapping (ASEEM)’ portal to help skilled people find sustainable livelihood opportunities.
- The Portal(AI based) is expected to improve the information flow and bridge the demand-supply gap in the skilled workforce market.
- It is developed by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in collaboration with Bengaluru-based company ‘Betterplace’.
- It will provide real-time data analytics about the demand and supply patterns including – industry requirements, skill gap analysis, demand per district/ state/cluster, key workforce suppliers, key consumers, migration patterns and multiple potential career prospects for candidates.
- It will enable policymakers to take a more objective view of various sectors in the economy.
- It will further re-engineer the vocational training landscape in the country ensuring a skilling, up-skilling and reskilling in a more organised set up.
- It is also available as an application (app), it consists of three IT based interfaces:
Employer Portal: Employer onboarding, demand aggregation, candidate selection.
Dashboard: Reports, trends, analytics, and highlight gaps.
Candidate Application: Create & track candidate profile, share job suggestions.
To Skilled Workforce:
- It will have provision for registration and data upload for workers across job roles, sectors and geographies.
- It will help in strengthening industry-relevant skills and explore emerging job opportunities especially in the post Covid era.
- Candidate data coming to Skill India Portal from various state and central skilling schemes will be integrated including that from Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), Fee-based Programs, National Urban Livelihoods Mission, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana, etc.
- Database of labour migrants in Indian states and overseas citizens, who returned to India under the Vande Bharat Mission and filled SWADES Skill Card, has been integrated with the ASEEM portal.
- They will be able to assess the availability of a skilled workforce and formulate their hiring plans.
8. PHASED MANUFACTURING PROGRAMME
Subject: Govt Schemes
Phased Manufacturing Programme
- The PLI follows the phased manufacturing programme (PMP) which was launched in 2016-17.
- The PMP aimed to increase the share of locally-procured components in the manufacturing of mobile phones leading to the setting up of a “robust indigenous mobile manufacturing ecosystem in India.”
- The PMP incentivised the manufacture of low value accessories initially, and then moved on to the manufacture of higher value components.
- This was done by increasing the basic customs duty on the imports of these accessories or components.