Daily Prelims Notes 17 January 2021
- January 17, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes 17 January 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- Consultative Committee of Parliament
- Contempt Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
- Startup India Seed Fund
- Net metering
- National Investigation Agency (NIA) and Right to Protest
- Trans Fats
Context: Consultative committee on foreign affairs questioned govt’s foreign policy on several issues.
- The meeting of committee was a way of fixing accountability of government as well as making every member aware of India’s foreign policy developments. It brought out many questions facing Indian Foreign Policies today:
- India’s Internal policies and decisions (ex- Art 370, 35 withdrawal; Citizenship Act) have been critically viewed by some countries.
- Government plans to engage with the new US administration as it is expected it will be completely different from Trump’s regime
- Addressing Chinese assertiveness
- The need to find a balance between India’s ties with the US and Russia and the geopolitical contest that has broken out between the US and China
- Restoring the internal dialogue and consultation process on foreign policy issues
About Consultative Committees:
- These are attached to the various ministries/department of the Central government
- Its membership encompasses members of both the houses.
- The Minister/Minister of State-in-Charge is the chairperson.
- It is a platform for informal consultations between government and members on policies and their implementation.
- These committees are formed by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs who formulate guidelines for composition, structure and procedure as well. It is also responsible of holding of meeting during as well as between sessions.
- It is constituted normally after the formation of new Lok Sabha. Currently around 32 such committees are there.
- Sometimes informal consultative committees for railway zones are formed during session period only with MPs of the zone nominated as member.
Context: Amidst controversies surrounding use of Contempt of court in recent times Mr Harish Salve spoke in 16th PD Desai Memorial Lecture on ‘Criticism of Judiciary, Contempt Jurisdiction and its use in the Age of Social Media’.
- Supreme Court enjoys two major power as a Court of Record:
- The judgements, proceedings and acts of court is kept for perpetual memory and testimony. These have evidentiary value and recognised as the legal precedents and can’t be questioned when brough in front of the court.
- Power to punish for contempt of court. It is both civil and criminal punishment i.e., jail term up to 6 months or Rs 2000 as fine or both. The SC has power to punish not only for itself, but HCs, subordinate courts and tribunals within country.
- Civil contempt: When there is wilful disobedience of to any of the judgement, order, writ or other processes of a court or breach of undertaking to the court.
- Criminal contempt: Publication of any matter or doing an act which: 1) scandalises or lowers court’s authority; 2) Prejudices or interferes with the due proceedings of the court; 3) Interferes or obstructs the administration of justice in any manner.
- Innocent publication and distribution of matter, fair and true reporting of judicial proceedings, fair and reasonable criticism of judicial acts and comment on the administrative side of judiciary does not warrant contempt of court.
- The power is given to ensure independence of judiciary in India.
Context: The government will launch a Rs 1,000-crore seed fund for start-ups, called Start-up India Seed Fund. It was announced at the “Prarambh: Start-up India International Summit”.
- A one thousand crore rupees seed money for start ups under the Startup India Seed Fund.
- It will help in starting and growing new startups.
- It will complement Fund of funds scheme that is already helping startups raising equity capital.
- Similar incentive was seen in budget of Rs 95.03 crore being earmarked for the programme named ‘Chunauti’, to be spent over a period of three years.
About Prarambh: Start-up India International Summit
- First start-up conclave of BIMSTEC nation was organized.
- It seeks to reap vibrant energy in the start-up space in BIMSTEC counties like Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Thailand.
- It will be based on collaboration and taking responsibility to come together.
4. Net metering
Context: To popularise solar energy Bengal govt has allowed net metering for individual household staring from 1 KW onwards.
- Earlier institutional, commercial, industrial and cooperative housing were only allowed the benefit of net metering and that too for 5 KW capacity onward.
- Allowing households will remove any restrictions and anyone can install rooftop solar panel.
- Net metering concept allows to set-off the number of units produced from the total consumption and the consumer pays electricity charges of only what he had derived from the grid or distribution company.
About Net Metering:
- Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid.
- It gives consumer power over electricity bills and promote renewable energy.
Subject: Central agencies/Fundamental rights
Context: NIA sent notice and summons to various farmers’ leaders during ongoing farmer sprotes under sections of IPC and UAPA.
Right of protest of citizens and to gather peacefully without arms is a fundamental aspect of India’s thriving democracy, though it has to exercised without destroying public properties and sufferings to the citizens. It can be derived from following constitutional provisions.
- Article 19(1)(a) guarantees the freedom of speech and expression.
- Article 19(1)(b) assures citizens the right to assemble peaceably and without arms.
- Article 19(2) imposes reasonable restrictions on the right to assemble peaceably and without arms.
- Reasonable restrictions: In the interest of sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
- Article 51A, the Constitution makes it a fundamental duty of every citizen “to safeguard public property and to abjure violence”
- Ramlila Maidan Incident v. Home Secretary, Union Of India case (2012): Citizens have a fundamental right to assembly and peaceful protest which cannot be taken away by an arbitrary executive or legislative action
- NIA was constituted under the National Investigation Agency Act, 2008 as the aftermath of the Mumbai Terror attack of 2008.
- The National Investigation Agency (NIA) acts as the Central Counter-Terrorism Law Enforcement Agency.The agency is authorised to investigate any terror-related matter across the country without special permission of the states.
- The National Investigation Agency aims to be a thoroughly professional investigative agency matching the best international standards.
- The NIA aims to set the standards of excellence in counter terrorism and other national security related investigations at the national level by developing into a highly trained, partnership oriented workforce.
- NIA aims at creating deterrence for existing and potential terrorist groups/individuals. It aims to develop as a storehouse of all terrorist related information.
6. Trans Fats
Context: Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) reduced the permissible limit of trans fatty acids (TFA) in oils and fats to 3% for 2021 and 2% by 2022, against the earlier cap of 5%.
- The amendment was brought through an amendment in Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulations.
- It applies to edible refined oils, vanaspati (partially hydrogenated oils), margarine, bakery shortenings, and other cooking media like vegetable fat spreads and mixed fat spreads.
- WHO had called for a global elimination of industrially produced TFAs by 2023. It brought a step-by-step guide called ‘REPLACE’ to help countries frame policies.
- Denmark became the first country to ban TFAs in 2003 after threat of non-communicable disease started getting attention in world.
Are all fat bad?
- All-natural fats and oils are a combination of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids. Our body needs the first two categories of ‘healthy’ fats as apart from being a major source of energy, they help absorb some vitamins and minerals and build cell membranes and the sheaths surrounding nerves.
- Saturated fatty acids on the other hand are considered harmful as it clogs arteries and result in hypertension, heart attacks, and other cardiovascular issues.
- Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally, causing over 1.8 crore deaths every year. The WHO estimates that over 5 lakh people with cardiovascular issues die globally every year due to the consumption of industrially produced TFAs About Trans Fats:
- These are saturated fats produced from vegetable oils. They are commonly used in baked and fried foods as well as adulterated ghee, which becomes solid at room temperature.
- There are of two types Natural and Artificial trans fats. Artificial trans fats are man-made fats produced through a chemical process called hydrogenation (Hydrogenation is a process in which a liquid unsaturated fat is turned into a solid fat by adding hydrogen).
- Hydrogenation is used in industry increase their shelf life, and for use as an adulterant as they are cheap.
- Naturally-occurring trans fats can be found in many animal products, including milk and meat.
Why India needs to take urgent action?
- As per FSSAI, about 77,000 deaths take place annually in India due to TFAs.
- Last year, 11 of the 15 countries that account for two-thirds of deaths linked to trans fats still needed to act. These were Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iran, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, Republic of Korea.
- Challenge as implementation is the state subject.