Daily Prelims Notes 2 March 2022
- March 2, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
2 March 2022
Table Of Contents
- Ganga, Brahmaputra, Indus water levels to rise by 2050: New IPCC report
- CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON BIODIVERSITY
- Atlas of human suffering: IPCC report
- BHAKRA DAM
- COOPERATIVE BANKS
- SILVER LINE PROJECT KERALA
- IPCC Report
- India Russia Trade
Context- The Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins, which provide water to the most densely populated areas of south Asia, will see an increase in river ‘runoff’ by 2050 and 2100, according to projections by the IPCC in its Sixth Assessment Report on Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, released February 28, 2022.
- River run-off’ refers to water that comes into a river water system from sources such as rainfall, melting snow and groundwater.
- The run-off could increase 3-27 per cent by mid-century, according to the report.
- It would be:
- 7-12 per cent in the Indus
- 10-27 per cent in the Ganga
- 3-8 per cent in the Brahmaputra
- The increase in run-off in the upper Ganga and Brahmaputra would be due to a rise in precipitation, while in the Indus, it would be due to accelerated melting snow.
- The Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra region also faces the threat of increased frequency of flood events.
- The Ganga originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Kashi District of Uttarakhand at an elevation of 7,010 m.
- Alaknanda River joins Bhagirathi at Devaprayag. From Devapryag the river is called as Ganga.
- At Farraka, it bifurcates into Bhagirathi-Hugli in West Bengal and Padma-Meghna in Bangladesh (it ceases to be known as the Ganga after Farraka).
- It originates under the name of Siang or Dihang, from the Angsi glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake.
- It enters India west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh.
- Tributaries: Dibang, Lohit, Siang, Burhi Dihing, Tista, and Dhansari.
- The world’s largest riverine island, Majuli Island is on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Assam.
- The Brahmaputra drains into the Bay of Bengal before forming a huge delta along with the Ganga.
- It flows in north-west direction from its source (Glaciers of Kailas Range – Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar) till the Nanga Parbhat Range.
- It is joined by Dhar River near Indo-China border.
- After entering J&K it flows between the Ladakh and the Zaskar Ranges. It flows through the regions of Ladakh, Baltistan and Gilgit.
- It is joined by the Zaskar River at Leh.
- Near Skardu, it is joined by the Shyok at an elevation of about 2,700 m.
- The Gilgit, Gartang, Dras, Shiger, Hunza are the other Himalayan tributaries of the Indus.
- Kabul river from Afghanistan joins Indus near Attock. Thereafter it flows through the Potwar plateau and crosses the Salt Range (South Eastern edge of Potwar Plateau).
- Just above Mithankot, the Indus receives from Panjnad (Panchnad), the accumulated waters of the five eastern tributaries—the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj.
- The river empties into the Arabian Sea south of Karachi after forming a huge delta.
Context- Bengal tiger, hoolock gibbon, snow leopard to face climate change wrath: New IPCC report
- The snow leopard, which is the apex predator in the mountain ranges of central and south Asia, is found across 12 countries in Asia.
- Of these, its suitable habitat area will increase in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia.
- However, habitat loss is expected on the south slope of the Himalaya and the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau.
- Climate change will cause the extinction of the Hoolock gibbon in Bangladesh by 2070.
- Future climate change would also reduce suitable habitat of protected plants including two threatened medicinal plants — Fritillaria cirrhosa (yellow Himalayan fritillary) and Lilium nepalense (the lily of Nepal) — in Nepal and a valuable threatened tree species from the mahogany family — Dysoxylum binectariferum — in Bangladesh.
- Climate change will promote the invasion of six mostly serious invasive plant species in Nepal. These are:
- Ageratum houstonianum (Floss flower)
- Chromolaena odorata (Bitter bush)
- Hyptis suaveolens (Pignut)
- Lantana camara (Raimuniya in Hindi)
- Mikania micrantha (Bitter vine)
- Parthenium hysterophorus (Carrot grass)
- Climate change would also inhibit the invasion of two invasive plants — Chromolaena odorata (Bitter bush) and Tridax procumbens (Tridax daisy) — in India.
Context- The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate science body of the United Nations, published the second instalment of its Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) February 28, 2022. It focuses on the effects of climate change on ecosystems and society.
Some of its key takeaways:
- Most populated regions at high risk: Cities — which house more than half of the world’s population — are at the highest risk from climate change.
- Poor most hurt: Low-income populations face the largest gap in adaptation action, in terms of what is happening versus what is needed.
- Some changes irreversible: Some climate change-driven losses, such as the extinction of species, are irreversible. Others include the retreat of glaciers and thawing of permafrost, particularly in the Arctic region.
- Impact on health, food, agriculture: Human society will increasingly face heat stress, water scarcity, threats to food security and flood risks as the crisis worsens. At 2°C of warming, people in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Small Island Developing States will face severe food shortages and malnutrition.
- The report recommended harnessing the adaptive strengths of nature through measures like:
- Conservation, protection and restoration of natural forests
- Planting of diverse tree species to withstand climate impacts.
- Adopting rainwater storage and other water-saving technologies can help combat groundwater depletion in agriculture.
- Food security can be enhanced by adopting stress-tolerant crops and livestock, promoting community-based adaptation that is locally driven.
- Cities can use nature-based engineering approaches like establishing parks, green corridors, and urban agriculture. And expanded social safety nets will help with disaster management.
Context- Centre’s has amended the rules regarding appointments to two key positions on the Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB).
About Bhakra Dam:
- Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Sutlej River.
- The dam forms the Gobind Sagar reservoir.
- The dam, located at a gorge near the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh of height 226 m.
- In terms of quantity of water, it is the third largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar dam in Madhya Pradesh and second Nagarjunasagar Dam.
- Nangal Dam is another dam in Punjab downstream of Bhakra Dam. However, sometimes both the dams together are called Bhakra-Nangal Dam though they are two separate dams.
- Bhakra dam was part of the larger multipurpose Bhakra Nangal Project whose aims were to prevent floods in the Satluj-Beas river valley, to provide irrigation to adjoining states and also to provide hydro-electricity.
*** For further information refer to DPN 28 February 2022.
Context- Investments in capital market through participatory notes (P-notes) dropped to ₹87,989 crore at the end of January.
- A participatory note, commonly known as a P-note or PN.
- P-notes are Offshore Derivative Instruments (ODIs) issued by registered Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be a part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly with the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
- P-notes have Indian stocks as their underlying assets.
- SEBI permitted foreign institutional investors to register and participate in the Indian stock market in 1992.
- These notes are a unique Indian invention started in 2000 by SEBI to enable foreign corporates and high net worth investors enter the Indian market without having to go through the process of registering as Foreign Institutional Investor (FII).
- Participatory notes are instruments used for making investments in the stock markets.
- However, they are not used within the country; they are used outside of India for making investments in stocks listed on Indian stock markets, which is why they’re also referred to as offshore derivative instruments.
Context- The Reserve Bank of India has imposed a penalty on three co- operative banks, including Nagrik Sahakari Bank Maryadit at at Panna, Satna and Raipur for deﬁciencies in regulatory compliances Banking Regulation Act, 1949, and the Depositor Education and Awareness Fund Scheme, 2014.
- A Co-operative bank is a financial entity which belongs to its members, who are at the same time the owners and the customers of their bank.
- These banks provide a wide range of regular banking and financial services. However, there are some points where they differ from other banks.
- They came into being with the aim to promote saving and investment habits among people, especially in rural parts of the country.
- Co-operative banks in India are registered under the States Cooperative Societies Act.
- The Co-operative banks are also regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and governed by the
- Banking Regulations Act 1949
- Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Act, 1955.
- Structure of Cooperative Banks:
Context- The proposed 529.45-km line will link Thiruvananthapuram in the south to Kasaragod in the north, covering 11 districts through 11 stations.
- The project entails building a semi high-speed railway corridor through the state linking its southern end and state capital Thiruvananthapuram with its northern end of Kasaragod.
- KRDCL, or K-Rail, is a joint venture between the Kerala government and the Union Ministry of Railways.
- SilverLine will bring remarkable changes in local commute, by improving the travel time and quality of transportation.
- There will be a substantial reduction in road accidents due to decongestion on roads.
- SilverLine also provides last mile connectivity which will transform people’s perception towards public transportation.
*** For Further information refer to DPN 22 December 2021
Context: Climate change induced droughts have been a major driver of food insecurity says IPCC Report.
- During 1983-2009, over 454 Mn ha of croplande., 3/4th of the global harvested area (34% global calorie production) was devoured by Droughts and the production losses amounted to $166bn.
- Similarly, extreme weather led to cereal production loss of 9-10%.
- In this scenario, if Global warming over pre-industrial levels rises to 40C from 10C, rice production may decrease 30% (instead of 10%) and maize production to 70% (instead of 25%).
- Further, Yield losses were about 25% and the losses in high-income countries (8-11%) were higher than in low-income countries.
- The report says, from 2006-2016, droughts contributed to food insecurity and malnutrition in northern, eastern and southern Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
- It also cautioned that overall irrigation water demand would increase by 2080.
- Both food and the water sectors would be negatively impacted by global warming with higher risks at 2 °C than at 1.5°C.
- Evidence of floods on food production was limited, as per the report.
- While overall agricultural productivity has increased, climate change has slowed this growth over the past 50 years globally.
- The impact on food availability and nutritional quality will increase the number of people at risk of hunger, malnutrition and diet-related mortality. This will particularly impact indigenous peoples, small-scale food producers and low-income households as well as children, elderly people and pregnant women.
Context: India’s exports to Russia come under a shadow following economic and banking sanctions imposed by the US, the UK and the EU for invading Ukraine.
- Russia is India’s 25th largest trading partner and imports considerable volumes of Tea, pharmaceuticals, mobile phones and other electronics, machinery, iron and steel and apparels from India.
- India’s total exports to Russia were valued at $2.6bn while imports were at $5.4bn.
- As most Russian banks have been blocked from the SWIFT international payment system, Russian companies find it difficult to put through financial transactions.
- Russian importers who have entities in other countries (Turkey, Hong Kong or the UAE) suggested that India should allow third country payments.
- But this alternative option may lead to payment delays as Ruble is not a freely convertible currency and determining exchange rate is an issue. Also, the need for advance declaration at time of shipment and shipment cost are other complications.
Third Party payments:
Third-party refers to an entity other than the buyer or the seller. To ease procedures, in 2013 the Reserve Bank allowed third-party payment for export and import transactions with certain conditions.
- Third-party transaction should take place through the banking channel and with a Financial Action Task Force (FATF) compliant country.
- Payment for exports has to be received from the overseas buyer named in the Export Declaration Form (EDF) by the exporter and the payment shall be received in a currency appropriate to the place of final destination as mentioned in the EDF irrespective of the country of residence of the buyer.
- Similarly, the payments for the import should be made to the original overseas seller of the goods.
To read about SWIFT, refer https://optimizeias.com/swift/