Daily Prelims Notes 26 February 2022
- February 26, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
26 February 2022
Table Of Contents
- NATIONAL PARKS & WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES
- ATMANIRBHARTA IN DEFENCE
- LOKTAK LAKE
- TECHNOLOGICAL SINGULARITY
- DUGONG CONSERVATION RESERVE
- CENTRAL SECRETARIAT SERVICE
- HIGH COURT JUDGES
- TELECOM REGULATORY AUTHORITY OF INDIA (TRAI)
- INDIA- JAPAN MILITARY EXERCISE
- Ahom warrior Lachit Borphukan and the battles of Alaboi & Saraighat
Context- On February 26, 1919, US President Woodrow Wilson signed an act of Congress establishing the Grand Canyon National Park.
About Grand Canyon:
- Grand Canyon, immense canyon cut by the Colorado River in the high plateau region of northwestern Arizona, U.S., noted for its fantastic shapes and coloration.
Other Parks & Sanctuaries:
|National Parks & Sanctuaries
|Mukurthi National Park -Tamil Nadu
|It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is also a UNESCO World Heritage site.
● It is home to Endemic NilgiriTahr
|Dachigam National Park – J&K
|Kashmir stag Hangul, a subspecies of Elk
|Sable Game Reserve – South Africa
|It was set up in 1898 by the then President of the South African Republic and in 1926 was named after that ﬁrst president i.e. The Kruger National Park, named after President Paul Kruger
|Komodo National Park- Indonesia in the Lesser Sunda islands
|It is spread over 29 islands, is home to the world’s largest lizard, the Komodo Dragon.
|The Keoladeo National Park, also known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, famous for its migratory birds
|It is named after a Shiva temple within its boundaries and was ﬂooded on the instructions of MaharahaSuraj Mal in the 18th century to create a hunting ground for Maharjas and later Viceroys
|Declared a national park in 1997. This is the only breeding ground of the olive ridley turtle species in the Indian Ocean
|Serengeti National Park- Tanzania
|The Serengeti national park from the word ‘Siringet’. The Serengeti, spread over almost 15,000 sq km, is home to the largest animal migration on the planet.
Derives its name from a Masai word that literally means “the place where the land runs on forever
|Fiordland National Park
|The country of Norway is famous for its fjords, but the Fiordland National Park is a tourist attraction in New Zealand and a part of a World Heritage site.
|Torres del Paine National Park- Chile
|It is in an area between the subpolar forests and the Patagonian Steppes
Torres del Paine National Park is famous for its spectacular beauty encompassing mountains, lakes and glaciers and is home to Guanacos, Pumas and the Andean Condor
|Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary – Madhya Pradesh
|set up in 1981, and was selected as a possible site for the Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project to establish a second lion population in India. In 2022, environment minister Bhupender Yadav announced a proposal to populate the sanctuary with Cheetah which went extinct in India in the early 20th century.
Context- The Union Cabinet is expected to consider a proposal to put Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) at par with public sector banks for foreign direct investment (FDI).
FDI Limits In Different Sectors In India:
|FDI Limit & Route
|1. Agriculture & Animal Husbandry
|2. Mining (Coal & Lignite)
|3. Petroleum & Natural Gas Exploration
|4. Petroleum & Natural Gas refining by the Public Sector Undertakings (PSU)
|5. Defence Manufacturing
|Automatic up to 74%
Above74% under Government route in cases resulting in access to modern technology in the country
|6. Print Media
|26% Government Route
|7.Civil Aviation – Airports
Green Field Projects & Existing Projects
|8.Civil Aviation – Air Transport Services
• Scheduled Air Transport Service/ Domestic Scheduled Passenger Airline
• Regional Air Transport Service
(Foreign Airlines are barred from Investing in Air India)
|Automatic up to 49%
Above 49% under Government route
100% Automatic for NRIs
|9. Telecom Services
|100%, Above 49% under Government route
|10. Private Security Agencies
|Automatic up to 49%
Above 49% & up to 74% under Government route
|11. Single Brand Retail
|100%, Automatic up to 49%
Above 49% under Government route
|12. Multi Brand Retail
|51% Under Government Route.
|13. Banking- Private Sector
|Automatic up to 49%
Above 49% & up to 74% under Government route
|14. Banking- Public Sector
|20% Government Route
|15. Insurance Companies
|74% Automatic Route
|16. Insurance Intermediaries
|100% Automatic Route
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- Prime Minister Narendra Modi will deliver the inaugural address of the post-budget webinar of the Ministry of Defence on ‘AtmaNirbharta in Defence – Call to Action’ on Friday.
- The objective of the webinar is to involve all the stakeholders in taking forward the various initiatives of the Government in the defence sector.
AtmaNirbharta in Defence:
- The provision of ‘Make’ category of capital acquisition in Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) is a vital pillar for realising the vision behind the ‘Make in India’ initiative of the Government, by fostering indigenous capabilities through design & development of required defence equipment/product/systems or upgrades/ sub-systems/components /parts by both public and private sector industry/organization in a faster time frame.
- ‘Make’ Procedure has following two sub-categories:
- Make-I (Government Funded): Projects under ‘Make-I’ sub-category will involve Government funding of 90%.
- Make-II (Industry Funded): Projects under ‘Make-II’ category will involve prototype development of equipment/ system/ platform or their upgrades or their sub-systems/ sub-assembly/assemblies/ components, primarily for import substitution/innovative solutions, for which no Government funding will be provided for prototype development purposes.
- The ‘Make-II’ projects have been divided into two lists:
- List-1: contains the potential ‘Make’ projects for which ‘Approval -in-Principle(AIP)’ has been accorded.
- List-2: contains the projects which are at exploratory stages& the process of preliminary Feasibility study is under way.
Context- Manipur Assembly Elections 2022: Loktaklake, climate change, carbon footprint feature in party manifestos.
About Loktak Lake:
- Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Northeast India and is famous for the phumdis floating over it.
- Phumdis are the heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil and organic matter at various stages of decomposition.
- It is the only floating national park in world and is last natural refuge of endangered Sangai deer.
- This ancient lake plays an important role in the economy of Manipur. It serves as a source of water for irrigation, drinking water supply and hydropower generation.
- Loktaklake was initially designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1990.
- Later it was also listed under the Montreux Record in 1993.
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- Researchers predict singularity by 2045 — a stage where machines become more advanced than human beings.
- It is estimated that by 2034-40, i.e. within the next 15 years, 50 per cent of the jobs would be automated in the US.
About Technological Singularity:
- Technological singularity is a hypothetical point in time at which the development of artificial general intelligence will make human civilization obsolete.
- According to the most popular version of the singularity hypothesis, called intelligence explosion, will eventually lead to self-improvement cycles with each new and more intelligent generation appearing more and more rapidly, causing an “explosion” in intelligence and resulting in a powerful superintelligence that qualitatively far surpasses all human intelligence.
- This necessitates one to understand AI, its beneﬁts, its major issues and its implications on government and social order.
Context- The Tamil Nadu government had announced that a dugong conservation reserve would be established in the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay between India and Sri Lanka, for the conservation of the animals.
- Declaring an area as ‘protected’ means there will be no human interference in there.
- The dugong (Dugong dugon), also called the sea cow, is a herbivorous mammal grazing on seagrass.
- Dugongs are protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 which means they have the highest level of legal protection under Indian law.
Conservation Reserves in India:
- It is an area owned by the state government adjacent to the national parks and sanctuaries for protecting the landscape, seascape, and habitat of fauna and flora. It is managed through a conservation reserve management committee.
- These protected area categories were first introduced in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002 − the amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
- The state government may, after having consultations with the local communities, declare any area owned by the government as a conservation reserve.
- Tiruppadaimarathur conservation reserve in tirunelveli, tamilnadu is the first conservation reserve established in the country.
*** For Further Information Please Refer to DPN 15 January 2022.
Context- Central staﬀ protest over promotions at the North Block oﬃce of Minister of State for Personnel, Public Grievances.
Central Secretariat Service:
- Central Secretariat Service (abbreviated as CSS) is the administrative civil service under Group A and Group B of the Central Civil Services of the executive branch of the Government of India.
- They are governed by Central Secretariat Service Rules of 1962 which has been issued under the powers of Article 309 of the Constitution of India.
- The service members work under restrictions and rules of Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules.
- The service serves as the backbone of administrative work and provides permanent bureaucracy and functionary staff in the Union Government ministries, Cabinet Secretariat, Central Secretariat and other offices of Government of India.
Context- Union Law Secretary Anoop Kumar Mendiratta on Friday was elevated as a judge of the Delhi High Court.
Appointment of High Court Judges:
- Article 217 of the Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI), the Governor of the State.
- In the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court is consulted.
- High Court judges are recommended by a Collegium comprising the CJI and two senior-most judges.
- The recommendation is sent to the Chief Minister, who advises the Governor to send the proposal to the Union Law Minister.
- Ad-hoc Judges: The appointment of retired judges was provided for in the Constitution under Article 224A. Under the Article, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of judge of that court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a judge of the High Court for that State.
- It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the SC, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
- Evolution of the Collegium System:
- First Judges Case (1981): It declared that the “primacy” of the Chief Justice of India (CJI) recommendation on judicial appointments and transfers can be refused for “cogent reasons.”
- The ruling gave the Executive primacy over the Judiciary in judicial appointments.
- Second Judges Case (1993): SC introduced the Collegium system, holding that “consultation” really meant “concurrence”.
- It added that it was not the CJI’s individual opinion, but an institutional opinion formed in consultation with the two senior-most judges in the SC.
- Third Judges Case (1998): SC on President’s reference expanded the Collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior-most colleagues (for example for the transfer of HC judges).
Context- The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has urged TRAI to expedite submission of its recommendations on 5G spectrum auctions.
- The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was established in 1997 by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
- The head office of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is located at New Delhi.
- The TRAI consists of a Chairperson, two whole-time members and two part-time members, all of which are appointed by the Government of India.
Functions of TRAI:
- The function of the TRAI is to make recommendations to the central government on matters related to service providers, Revocation of license for non-compliance , Measures to facilitate competition and promote efficiency in the operation of telecommunication services to facilitate their growth etc.
- Laying down the standards of quality of service to be provided by the service providers.
- Timely and officially notifying the rates at which the telecommunication services within India and outside India shall be provided under the TRAI Act, 1997.
- The recommendations of the TRAI are not binding upon the Central Government.
Powers of TRAI:
- It can call upon any service provider to furnish in writing the information or explanation relating to its affairs as the Authority may require.
- The Authority may appoint one or more persons to make an inquiry in relation to the affairs of any service provider.
- It is empowered to direct any of its officers or employees to inspect the books of accounts or other documents of any service provider.
- The Authority shall have the power to issue such directions to service providers as it may consider necessary for proper functioning by service providers.
TOPIC: Science & Tech
Context- India-Japan joint military drill begins in Belagavi on Sunday.
Dharma Guardian exercise:
- Indian and Japanese armies to start their annual Dharma Guardian exercise in Karnataka over the weekend.
- The exercise will begin on February 27 and go on till March 10 at the Foreign Training Node in Belgaum, Karnataka.
- The 15th battalion of the Maratha Light Infantry regiment will participate for India, and for Japan, the 30th Infantry Regiment of Japanese Ground Self Defence Forces (JGSDF) will participate.
- The exercise will enhance the level of defence co-operation between Indian Army and Japanese Ground Self Defence Forces, which in turn will further foster the bilateral relations between the two nations.
Context- Assam Chief Minister HimantaBiswaSarma had announced a number of projects in connection with the 400th birth anniversary of LachitBorphukan.
- Born on 24th November, 1622, Borphukan was known for his leadership in the Battle of Saraighat, 1671 in which an attempt by Mughal forces to capture Assam was thwarted. He died on 25th April, 1672.
- LachitBorphukan single-handedly led a vastly out numbered Ahom force to victory over a numerically superior Mughal Army.
- The LachitBorphukan gold medal is awarded to the best cadet from the National Defence Academy.
- The medal was instituted in 1999 to inspire defence personnel to emulate Borphukan’s heroism and sacrifices.
About Battle of Alaboi (1669):
- In 1669, Aurangzeb dispatched the Rajput Raja Ram Singh I to recapture territories won back by the Ahoms.
- The battle of Alaboi was fought between the Ahom armed force and Mughals trespassers on August 5, 1969 in the Alaboi Hills near Dadara in North Guwahati.
About Battle of Saraighat (1671):
- The Battle of Saraighat was a naval battle fought in 1671 between the Mughal Empire (led by the Kachwaha king, Raja Ram Singh I), and the Ahom Kingdom (led by LachitBorphukan) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, Guwahati, Assam.
- Although weaker, the Ahom Army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces (navy).
- The Battle of Saraighat was the last battle in the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam.
- Although the Mughals managed to regain Guwahati briefly later after a Borphukan deserted it, the Ahoms wrested control in the Battle of Itakhuli in 1682 and maintained it till the end of their rule.
About Ahom Kingdom:
- The Ahom dynasty (1228–1826) ruled the Ahom kingdom in present day Assam, India for nearly 598 years.
- ChaolungSukapha was a 13th century ruler who founded the Ahom kingdom that ruled Assam for six centuries. The Ahomsruled the land till the province was annexed to British India in 1826 with the signing of the Treaty of Yandaboo.
- In external medieval chronicles the kings of this dynasty were called Asam Raja, whereas the subjects of the kingdom called them Chaopha, or Swargadeo.