Daily Prelims Notes 6 July 2020
- July 6, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Sindhu Darshan Festival
- Global Environment Facility
- Compulsory license
- Article 78
- Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region
Subject: Arts and culture
Prime Minister has performed Sindhu Darshan puja at Nimu in Ladakh
- It is celebrated annually from 1997with an objective to signify role of river Sindhu in shaping culture of this region
- It is celebrated for three days on the eve of ‘Guru Purnima’ or the full moon day in June month.
- It is also called as SingheKabaab Festival and draws focus to the Sindhuriver and promotes the waterbody as a symbol of the country’s communal unity and harmony.
Beijing made new territorial claim on eastern Bhutan while objecting to a request to develop the Sakteng wildlife sanctuary in eastern Bhutan’s Trashigang district at an online meeting of the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
- The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summitto help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems.
- GEF is an international partnership of 183 countries, international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector that addresses global environmental issues.
- It is independently operated as a financial organization that provides grants for projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), mercury, sustainable forest management, food security, sustainable cities.
- The GEF provides funding to assist developing countries in meeting the objectives of international environmental conventions.
- The GEF serves as a “financial mechanism” to five conventions: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and Minamata Convention on Mercury.
States and Union Territories have drawn more than double the quantity of rice for distribution during April to June this year, compared to the corresponding period last year.
- As relief package, the Central government had announced that Priority Household (PHH) and Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) cardholders in the country would receive free additional entitlement of 5 kg per person per month up to November. This was in addition to their entitlement under the National Food Security Act (NFSA).
- The Centre also came up with a scheme for providing wheat and rice to ration cardholders not covered under the NFSA or non-priority household (NPHH) cardholders at the rate of ₹21 per kg and ₹22 per kg respectively.
Priority and Non-priority household and Antyodaya Anna Yojna
- National Food Security Act, 2013 covers upto 75% of the rural population and 50% of the urban population under underAntyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and priority households.
- While AAY households, which constitute poorest of the poor are entitled to 35 kg of foodgrains per family per month, priority households are entitled to 5 kg per person per month.
- State-wise coverage under NFSA has been determined by the NITI Aayog by using the NSSO’s Household Consumption Survey data for 2011-12.
- Within the coverage under TPDS determined for each State, the work of identification of eligible households is to be done by States/UTs. It is the responsibility of the State Governments/UTs, to evolve criteria for identification of priority households and their actual identification.
- The house holds remaining after selecting priority list will be moved to Non-Priority category. Non Priority House Holds (NPHH) areineligible to get subsidized food grains under NFSA system. According to NFSA, 25% of the rural population and 50% of urban population will be out from receiving subsidized foodgrains under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS). They will get ration cards but no subsidized food grains as priority ration cards (PHH) get.
Political party CPI(M) has asked the government to invoke Clause 92 of the Patents Act and issue compulsory license to manufacturers to produce the generic version of Remdesivir used for treating coronavirus patients
- Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself.
- It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO’s agreement on intellectual property TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and also in Indian patent Act, 1972
- Under Indian Patent Act, 1970, the provision with regard to compulsory licensing is specifically given under Chapter XVI. The conditions which need to be fulfilled in order for a compulsory licence to be granted are laid down under Sections 84 and 92 of the Act.
- As per Section 84, any person who is interested or already the holder of the licence under the patent can make a request to the Controller for grant of Compulsory Licence on patent after three years from the date of grant of that patent.
- While granting the compulsory licence, the Patent office will take into account few measures such as the nature of the invention, any measures already taken by the patentees or any licencee to make full use of the invention, ability of the applicant to work the invention to the public advantage and time elapsed since the grant of the patent i.e. worked or not worked.
- Under clause 92, India has the right to issue a compulsory license to manufacture the drug in India.
- Under Clause 92A of the Patents Act, compulsory license can even be issued for export to countries that may require the drug and not have the capability to manufacture it.
5. Article 78
Prime minister called on President Ram at RashtrapatiBhavan and briefed him on issues of national and international importance.
- It is provision with respect to duties of Prime Minister in furnishing of information to the President
- It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister
- to communicate to the President all decisions of the council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the union and proposals for legislation;
- to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation as the President may call for; and
- if the President so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council of ministers.
United Nations University (UNU) released report on e-waste.
- E-waste will increase by 38 per cent in the decade between 2020 and 2030.
- There was 6 million tonnes (MT) e-waste in 2019, according to the report. That is a nearly 21 per cent increase in just five years.
- Asia generated the greatest volume of e-waste in 2019 about 24.9 MT, followed by the Americas (13.1 MT) and Europe (12 MT). Africa and Oceania generated 2.9 MT and 0.7 MT respectively.
- Less than 18 per cent of the e-waste generated in 2019 was collected and recycled.
- The number of countries that have adopted a national e-waste policy, legislation or regulation has increased from 61 to 78 and includes India.
- E-waste is a health and environmental hazard, containing toxic additives or hazardous substances such as mercury, which damages the human brain and / or coordination system. according to the report.
- There are 312 authorized recyclers of e-waste in India, with the capacity for treating approximately 800 kilotonnes annually.
- However, formal recycling capacity remains under-utilized, as the large majority of the waste is still handled by the informal sector. About 90 per cent of the country’s e-waste is recycled in the informal sector, according to the report.
Ministry of Earth Sciences has released the report First Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region.
- West Bengal is one of the most climatically vulnerable states of India with a history of a high number of severe cyclones in the Bay of Bengal coast, severe thunderstorms, a high sea-level rise and projected flood risk.
- The flood risk has increased over the east coast; West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Konkan region, as well as a majority of urban areas such as Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
- As against the global average warming of 0.7 degrees Celsius, sea surface temperature of the tropical Indian Ocean rose by on an average of 1°C between 1951 and 2015. Such an increase in ocean temperature has a direct bearing on the intensity of thunderstorms and cyclones in the zone.
- In a worst-case scenario, average surface air temperatures over India could rise by up to 4.4°Cby the end of the century as compared to the period between 1976 and 2005.
- The sea level has been rising at a rate of five centimetres per decade off the Bengal coast, the highest in the country. The rise is about three centimetres per decade close to Mumbai.
- By 2100, the frequency of warm days and warm nights might also increase by 55% and 70% respectively, as compared to the period 1976-2005 under the RCP 8.5 scenario.
- The incidences of heat waves over the country could also increase by three to four times. Their duration of occurrence might also increase which was already witnessed by the country in 2019.